6.16 | Standards Michigan

Tag Archives: 6.16


Electric Vehicle Power Transfer Systems

The 2020 National Electrical Code (NEC) contains significant revisions to Article 625 Electric Vehicle Power Transfer Systems.  Free access to this information is linked below:

2020 National Electrical Code

You will need to set up a (free) account to view Article 625.

We like to drill into technical specifics and there is no better place to get a sample of the debate than in the transcripts of public input, committee discussion and balloting, public response and final balloting.  The links below provide the access point:

Public Input Report Panel 12

Public Comment Report Panel 12

Panel 12 Final Ballot

We find a fair amount of administrative and harmonization action; fairly common in any revision cycle.   We have taken an interest in a few specific concepts that track in academic research construction industry literature:

  • Correlation with Underwriters Laboratory product standards
  • Bi-Directional Charging & Demand Response
  • Connection to interactive power sources

As a wiring safety installation code — with a large installer and inspection constituency — the NEC is usually the starting point for designing the power chain to electric vehicles.   There is close coupling between the NEC and product conformance organizations identified by NIST as Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories; the subject of a separate post.

Public input on the 2023 Edition is due September 10, 2020.

Edison electric vehicle | National Park Service, US Department of the Interior

We typically do not duplicate the work of the 10’s of thousands of National Electrical Code instructors who will be fanning out across the nation to host training sessions for electrical professionals whose license requires mandatory continuing education.  That space has been a crowded space for decades.   Instead we co-host “transcript reading” sessions with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee to sort through specifics of the 2020 NEC and to develop some of the ideas that ran through 2020 proposals but did not make it to final ballot and which we are likely to see on the docket of the 2023 NEC revision.   That committee meets online 4 times monthly.  We also include Article 625 on the standing agenda of our monthly Transportation & Parking teleconference; open to everyone.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting

Issue: [16-102]

Category: Electrical, Transportation & Parking, Energy

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey




ANSI/UL 2202, Standard for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging System Equipment
ANSI/UL 2594, Standard for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
ANSI/UL 2251, Standard for Plugs, Receptacles, and Couplers for Electric Vehicles


Cloud County Community College

Today at 11AM EDT we review best practice literature for private, public and hybrid cloud computing networks relevant to education communities.   Open to everyone.  Use the the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Standing Agenda / Cloud


Stray Voltage: Sources and Solutions

Michigan State University

Stray Voltage: Sources and Solutions

Truman C. Surbrook – Norman D. Reese – Angela M. Kehrle


Abstract.  Stray voltage is caused by voltage drop and ground faults and may have its origin on the primary electrical distribution system or on the customer’s secondary electrical system. The rms value of the neutral-to-earth voltage along a primary distribution line may be at a value of zero some distance from the substation depending on the condition of the conductor resistances, grounding resistances, and the amount of load. Neutral-to-earth resistance is not the cause of stray voltage; however, the value of this resistance to earth at a particular location will affect the level of stray voltage. A four-wire single-phase feeder system supplying farm buildings from a single metering point is effective in preventing on-farm secondary neutral voltage drop, provided the four-wire system is extended to all farm loads, and provided no high-magnitude ground faults are present. Isolation of the primary and secondary neutral systems at the distribution transformer is effective in preventing off-farm sources from entering the customer’s system. This separation may be accomplished using a number of commercially available devices.

CLICK HERE for access to entire paper

Healthcare Facilities Code

“The Doctor” | Sir Luke Fildes (1891)

The NFPA 99 Healthcare Facilities Code committee develops a distinct consensus document (i.e. “regulatory product”) that is distinct from National Electrical Code Article 517; though there are overlaps and gaps that are the natural consequence of changing technology and regulations.  It is worthwhile reviewing the scope of each committee:

NFPA 99 Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents that contain criteria for safeguarding patients and health care personnel in the delivery of health care services within health care facilities: a) from fire, explosion, electrical, and related hazards resulting either from the use of anesthetic agents, medical gas equipment, electrical apparatus, and high frequency electricity, or from internal or external incidents that disrupt normal patient care; b) from fire and explosion hazards; c) in connection with the use of hyperbaric and hypobaric facilities for medical purposes; d) through performance, maintenance and testing criteria for electrical systems, both normal and essential; and e) through performance, maintenance and testing, and installation criteria: (1) for vacuum systems for medical or surgical purposes, and (2) for medical gas systems; and f) through performance, maintenance and testing of plumbing, heating, cooling , and ventilating in health care facilities.

NFPA 70 Article 517 Scope:  The provisions of this article shall apply to electrical construction and installation criteria in healthcare facilities that provide services to human beings.  The requirements in Parts II and III not only apply to single-function buildings but are also intended to be individually applied to their respective forms of occupancy within a multi-function building (e.g. a doctor’s examining room located within a limited care facility would be required to meet the provisions of 517.10)   Informational Note: For information concerning performance, maintenance, and testing criteria, refer to the appropriate health care facilities documents.

In short, NFPA 70 Article 517 is intended to focus only on electrical safety issues though electrotechnology complexity and integration in healthcare settings (security, telecommunications, wireless medical devices, fire safety, environmental air control, etc.) usually results in conceptual overlap with other regulatory products such as NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code) and the International Building Code.

Several issues were recently debated by the Article 517 technical committee during the 2020 National Electrical Code Second Draft meetings

  • The conditions under which reconditioned electrical equipment be installed in healthcare settings; contingent on listing and re-certification specifics.
  • Relaxation of the design rules for feeder and branch circuit sizing through the application of demand factors.
  • Application of ground fault circuit interrupters.

There are, of course, many others, not the least of which involves emergency management.

We need to “touch” this code at least once a month because of its interdependence on other consensus products by other standards developing organizations.  To do this we refer NFPA 99 standards action to the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets online four times monthly in European and American time zones.  We also collaborate with IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 18.   We maintain NFPA 99 on the standing agenda of both our Power & ICT and Healthcare Facilities teleconferences; open to everyone.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.

Issues: [12-18, [15-97] and [16-101]

Contact: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Robert Arno, Josh Elvove, Joe DeRosier, Larry Spielvogel

NFPA Staff Liaison: Jonathan Hart

Archive / NFPA 99




Cloud Management & Security

“Above the Clouds at Sunrise” 1849 / Frederic Edwin Church


Accredited Standards Committee X9 has notified the American National Standards Institute of a new standardization project for cloud management and security.   From the project prospectus:

Project Need: The goal of the Cloud Services Compliance Data Standard is to describe a common set of data needed for automating internal control and compliance testing of cloud service infrastructures. The data standard would be designed to support standard control frameworks, including ISO 2700x, COSO/COBIT, PCI DSS, and others.

Stakeholders: Financial institutions; IT managers; chief risk officers; chief information security officers; compliance officers; internal and external auditors; cloud service providers; infrastructure, platform, and application service providers; cloud service infrastructure providers.

Cloud computing has led the “bleeding edge” of IT for the past 3 years, and the financial industry has led all industries in the adoption of this new computing environment. As such, bankers need to understand these technologies, establish an approach for identifying key risks and controls, and create the requirements for automating compliance reporting against established control frameworks. The traditional control frameworks applied to cloud computing can be effective, but are complicated by the fact that the technologies and control responsibilities are outside of the entity being audited. A key to the success of cloud computing is the ability for end-users to demonstrate defensible compliance reporting against established control frameworks.  To assist in automating compliance reporting, the data standards proposed in this NWI are needed to ensure interoperability between compliance systems at a Bank (e.g., SIEM platforms, Audit and GRC platforms, IT Management Systems) and cloud service provider IT management systems. The data standard would be designed to support standard control frameworks, including ISO 2700x, COSO/COBIT, PCI DSS, and others, used commonly in the marketplace today.

No comments are due at this time.   The project is launched formally through ANSI’s Project Initiation Notification system for all US stakeholders — not the least of which are competitor standards developing organizations — that a platform for leading practice discovery has been established.   For more information contact mbria Frazier, (410) 267-7707, Ambria.frazier@x9.org, 275 West Street, Suite 107, Annapolis, MD 21401

Landing pages for X9 standardization activity are linked below:

Recent Standards

Proposing Changes to Continuous & Periodically Maintained Standards

All X9 consensus products are on the standing agenda of our Data and Information & Communications Technology teleconferences; open to everyone.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.

The Ohio State University 2015 Hackathon

Issue: [20-122]

Category: Data, Information & Communications Technology

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Mike Hiler

Source: ANSI Standards Action


The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing



Wiring Fire Prevention in Hospitals

Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli / Rome, Italy

Localized fire ignition hazard in branch circuits, cords and connected equipment

Electrical Engineering Department, Sapienza Università di Roma
Italian National Fire Department

Abstract.  In electrical power systems, the fire ignition can be originated by incident energy of faults. Faults involve overheating, arcing and burning for all the wiring exposed to mechanical damage and other insulation stresses especially wiring connected by flexible cords and cables. The mechanical damage of the stranded bare conductors can degrade the effective sizing of the total cross section, causing anomalous conditions of local overcurrent. To highlight the local incident energy in case of fault, the parameters steady current and transient current densities can assist in analyzing the event. The conductors size reduction, degrading locally the thermal withstand capability, makes ineffective the protection coordination amplifying the anomalous effect of current no detectable adequately by overcurrent protective devices. The faulted cords remain so energized and present electric shock and fire hazards. Generally and especially in strategic buildings as hospitals, preventing ignition is better than promptly extinguishing. An efficient protection can be achieved by integration of active and passive techniques : by adoption of the special device Arc-fault Circuit Interrupter (AFCI) that recognize the arcing; by wiring the circuits, particularly extension cords, with Ground-Fault-Forced Cables, GFFCs, that convert faults into ground faults easily protected by ground fault protective devices (GFPDs).

Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli / Rome, Italy




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Adaptive Management of Cloud Computing Environments

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S. 1625: United States 5G Leadership Act of 2019

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