We collaborate with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee in assisting the US Army Corps of Engineers in gathering power system data from education communities that will inform statistical solutions for enhancing power system reliability for the Homeland.
United States Army Corps Power Relability Enhancement Program Flyer No. 1
United States Army Corps Power Reliability Enhancement Program Flyer No. 2
We maintain status information about this project — and all projects that enhance the reliability of education community power reliability — on the standing agenda of our periodic Power, Risk and Security colloquia. See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone
Category: Power, Data, Security
Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Robert G. Arno, Mark Bunal, Jim Harvey, Jerry Jimenez, Paul Kempf. Richard Robben
Standard Practice for Assessing Language Proficiency
Committee F43 on Language Services and Products
One of the easiest ways to persuade someone who disagrees with you is to change the subject without them knowing about it. Application of this method is found in the technical literature that informs safety and sustainability regulations at all levels of government. Change definitions; change the subject; outcome changed — hence our interest in spoken, written and computer languages.
Almost all technical standards begin with a list of definitions which, among domain experts, are frequently hard won.
From the project prospectus:
Purpose—This practice describes best practices for the development and use of language tests in the modalities of speaking, listening, reading, and writing for assessing ability in accordance with the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR)2 scale. This practice focuses on testing language proficiency in use of language for communicative purposes.
Limitations—This practice is not intended to address testing and test development in the following specialized areas: Translation, Interpretation, Audio Translation, Transcription, other job-specific language performance tests, or Diagnostic Assessment. Tests developed under this practice should not be used to address any of the above excluded purposes (for example, diagnostics).
This title was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade Committee.
As of the date of this post we find no changes in the titles developed by this committee; nor do we see any notice of meetings; likely owed to the circumstances of the pandemic.
Language lies at the foundation of all standards-setting so we maintain this title on the standing agenda of several of our daily colloquia. Its an “evergreen” topic that we can explore every day in every title in every catalog Feel free to click in to any of our daily colloquia; login credentials at the upper right of our home page.
Standards for the Modern Language Industry
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Michigan State University: A Rhetorical History of the United States
The National Institute of Standards and Technology is responsible for maintaining and disseminating official time in the United States. While NIST does not have a direct role in implementing clock changes for daylight saving time, it does play an important role in ensuring that timekeeping systems across the country are accurate and consistent.
Prior to the implementation of daylight saving time, NIST issues public announcements reminding individuals and organizations to adjust their clocks accordingly. NIST also provides resources to help people synchronize their clocks, such as the time.gov website and the NIST radio station WWV.
In addition, NIST is responsible for developing and maintaining the atomic clocks that are used to define Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the international standard for timekeeping. UTC is used as the basis for all civil time in the United States, and it is the reference time used by many systems, including the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the internet.
Overall, while NIST does not have a direct role in implementing clock changes for daylight saving time, it plays an important role in ensuring that timekeeping systems across the country are accurate and consistent, which is essential for the smooth implementation of any changes to the system.
Time Realization and Distribution
Bucknell University Pennsylvania
ISO 8601:2004 Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times
National Institute of Science & Technology: Time and Frequency
National Institute of Science & Technology: Current Reliability of the WWVB Time Code
NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm & Signaling Code Chapter 23: Protected Premises Alarm and Signaling Systems
Heat tracing is a process used to maintain or raise the temperature of pipes and vessels in order to prevent freezing, maintain process temperature, or ensure that products remain fluid and flow through the system properly.
Heat tracing works by using an electric heating cable or tape that is wrapped around the pipe or vessel, and then insulated to help retain the heat. The heating cable is connected to a power source and temperature control system that maintains the desired temperature by regulating the amount of heat output from the cable. Heat tracing is commonly used in industrial applications where temperature control is critical, such as in chemical plants, refineries, and oil and gas facilities.
There are several types of heat tracing, including electric heat tracing, steam tracing, and hot water tracing, each of which have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. The selection of the appropriate type of heat tracing depends on the specific application and the required temperature range, as well as factors such as cost, maintenance, and safety considerations.
Today we review the literature for snow and ice management (and enjoyment) produced by these standards-setting organizations:
Accredited Snow Contractors Association
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers
Electrical Heat Tracing: International Harmonization — Now and in the Future
International Code Council
National Electrical Contractors Association
National Fire Protection Association
Winter is Coming: Is Your Facility Protected? (Holly Burgess, November 2022)
National Electrical Code: Articles 426-427
National Floor Safety Institute
Snow and Ice Management Association
It is a surprisingly large domain with market-makers in every dimension of safety and sustainability; all of whom are bound by state and federal regulations. Join us at 16:00 UTC with the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.
There have been several recent innovations that have made it possible for construction activity to continue through cold winter months. Some of the most notable ones include:
Overall, these innovations have made it possible for construction crews to work through the winter months more comfortably and safely, which has helped to keep projects on schedule and minimize delays.
Electrical heat tracing: international harmonization-now and in the future
Tyco Thermal Controls
N.R. Rafferty – M. Kleinehanding – J.J. Hernandez
E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc
Abstract: In the past, electrical heat tracing has been thought of as a minor addition to plant utilities. Today, it is recognized as a critical subsystem to be monitored and controlled. A marriage between process, mechanical, and electrical engineers must take place to ensure that optimum economic results are produced. The Internet, expert systems, and falling costs of instrumentation will all contribute to more reliable control systems and improved monitoring systems. There is a harmonization between Europe and North America that should facilitate design and installation using common components. The future holds many opportunities to optimize the design.
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The National Electrical Contractors Association best practice catalog features a suite of titles (National Electrical Installation Standards to meet the intent of the National Electrical Code (NEC); particularly where the NEC asserts that an installation be constructed in a “neat and workmanlike manner”. As anyone who has had to reckon with the subjectivity of the local electrical inspector knows, the determination of “neat and workmanlike” can be mighty subjective. The NECA documents are used by construction owners, specifiers, contractors and electricians to clearly illustrate the performance and workmanship standards essential for different types of electrical construction. Because the NEC is intended to be primarily a wiring safety standard, the NEIS suite is referenced throughout the National Electrical Code. Electrical shop foremen and front line electricians take note.
NECA Standards and Publication Development Home Page
One of the NECA products that may be of interest to facility managers and risk management units in the education industry this time of year is NECA 202-2013 Standard for Installing and Maintaining Industrial Heat Tracing Systems. About half of the United States deals with snow and ice half the year.
NECA 202 details procedures for the installation, testing, and documentation of electrical freeze protection and process heat tracing systems. Heat tracing cable types covered by this publication include: self-regulating, constant wattage, and zone heating cables and mineral insulated heating cables. 2 is approved as an American National Standard. The 2013 edition is the current edition and will likely need revisiting/revision/reaffirmation as an American national standard soon.
The technical literature that keeps pipes breaking and roofs failing is complicated space. A common conundrum in the construction industry is which discipline (architectural, mechanical or electrical) should specify application of this technology; especially in value-engineering negotiations when each discipline is trying to reduce its unit costs. Control and communication system add another layer of complexity. Several consensus standards occupy this technology; cross referencing one another and leaving gaps
ASCE 7-10 Snow Load Provisions
IEEE 515 Standard for the Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Trace Heating for Industrial Applications
UL 515 Standard for Electrical Resistance Trace Heating for Commercial Applications
IEC 62395 Electrical resistance trace heating systems for industrial and commercial applications
National Electrical Code Article 427
There are codes and standards developed by ASTM International, the International Code Council and ASHRAE International that set the standard of care for pipe insulation for energy conservation purposes but we will deal with the interdependence of standard of care set by those documents in a separate post. Organizations such as FM Global typically derive their customer recommendations from consensus standards developers.
Because heat tracing is a cross-disciplinary technology we maintain it on the standing agenda of several colloquia: Power, Water, Bucolia, Snow & Ice and Mechanical See our CALENDAR for the next meeting; open to everyone. You may obtain an electronic copy of this standard from firstname.lastname@example.org. Communicate directly with Aga Golriz, (301) 215-4549, Aga.email@example.com.
Participation by the public in reviewing other titles in the NEIS bibliography is welcomed and begins at the page linked below:
Category: Architectural, Electrical, Facility Management, Mechanical, Risk Management,
Colleagues: Eric Albert, Mike Anthony, Jack Janveja, Richard Robben, Larry Spielvogel
RESEARCHGATE: HEAT-TRACING OF PIPING SYSTEMS TYPES OF HEAT-TRACING SYSTEMS