Tag Archives: WK4


2023 Collegiate Inventors Competition


Thomas Jefferson was the leader in founding the United States Patent Office. Jefferson was a strong supporter of the patent system and believed that it was essential for promoting innovation and progress in the United States. As the first Secretary of State Jefferson was responsible for implementing the country’s patent system.

Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution reads as follows:

“The Congress shall have Power To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”

In 1790, Jefferson drafted the first Patent Act, which established the procedures for applying for and granting patents. The act also created the United States Patent Office as a government agency to oversee the patent system. Jefferson appointed the first Patent Board, which was responsible for reviewing patent applications and making recommendations to the Secretary of State.

Jefferson was deeply involved in the early development of the Patent Office and was instrumental in shaping its policies and procedures. He believed that the patent system should be accessible to all inventors, regardless of their social or economic status, and he worked to streamline the patent application process to make it more efficient and user-friendly.

In recognition of his contributions to the development of the patent system, Jefferson is often referred to as the “Father of American Innovation.”

This clause grants Congress the authority to establish a system of patents and copyrights to protect the intellectual property of inventors and authors. The purpose of this system is to encourage innovation and creativity by providing inventors and authors with a temporary monopoly on their creations, allowing them to profit from their work and invest in future projects. The clause also emphasizes the importance of promoting the progress of science and the useful arts, reflecting the belief of the founders that the development of new technologies and inventions was essential for the growth and prosperity of the United States.

Over the years, the Patent Office has played a crucial role in the development of the United States as a technological leader, granting patents for inventions ranging from the telephone and the light bulb to the airplane and the computer. Today, the Patent Office is part of the United States Department of Commerce and is responsible for examining patent applications and issuing patents to inventors and companies.

2023 National Patent Application Drafting Competition

Heat Tracing

“Street in Røros in Winter” 1903 Harald Sohlberg

The National Electrical Contractors Association best practice catalog features a suite of titles (National Electrical Installation Standards to meet the intent of the National Electrical Code (NEC); particularly where the NEC asserts that an installation be constructed in a “neat and workmanlike manner”.   As anyone who has had to reckon with the subjectivity of the local electrical inspector knows, the determination of “neat and workmanlike” can be mighty subjective.   The NECA documents are used by construction owners, specifiers, contractors and electricians to clearly illustrate the performance and workmanship standards essential for different types of electrical construction.  Because the NEC is intended to be primarily a wiring safety standard, the NEIS suite is referenced throughout the National Electrical Code.  Electrical shop foremen and front line electricians take note.

NECA Standards and Publication Development Home Page

One of the NECA products that may be of interest to facility managers and risk management units in the education industry this time of year is NECA 202-2013 Standard for Installing and Maintaining Industrial Heat Tracing Systems.   About half of the United States deals with snow and ice half the year.

NECA 202 details procedures for the installation, testing, and documentation of electrical freeze protection and process heat tracing systems. Heat tracing cable types covered by this publication include: self-regulating, constant wattage, and zone heating cables and mineral insulated heating cables. 2 is approved as an American National Standard.   The 2013 edition is the current edition and will likely need revisiting/revision/reaffirmation as an American national standard soon.

The technical literature that keeps pipes breaking and roofs failing is complicated space. A common conundrum in the construction industry is which discipline (architectural, mechanical or electrical) should specify application of this technology; especially in value-engineering negotiations when each discipline is trying to reduce its unit costs. Control and communication system add another layer of complexity.  Several consensus standards occupy this technology; cross referencing one another and leaving gaps

ASCE 7-10 Snow Load Provisions

IEEE 515 Standard for the Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Trace Heating for Industrial Applications

UL 515 Standard for Electrical Resistance Trace Heating for Commercial Applications

IEC 62395 Electrical resistance trace heating systems for industrial and commercial applications

National Electrical Code Article 427

There are codes and standards developed by ASTM International, the International Code Council and ASHRAE International that set the standard of care for pipe insulation for energy conservation purposes but we will deal with the interdependence of standard of care set by those documents in a separate post.   Organizations such as FM Global typically derive their customer recommendations from consensus standards developers.

Because heat tracing is a cross-disciplinary technology we maintain it on the standing agenda of several colloquia: Power, Water, Bucolia, Snow & Ice and Mechanical   See our CALENDAR for the next meeting; open to everyone.  You may obtain an electronic copy of this standard from neis@necanet.org.  Communicate directly with Aga Golriz, (301) 215-4549, Aga.golriz@necanet.org.

Participation by the public in reviewing other titles in the NEIS bibliography is welcomed and begins at the page linked below:

Call for Public Review

Issue: [19-24]

Category: Architectural, Electrical, Facility Management, Mechanical, Risk Management,

Colleagues: Eric Albert, Mike Anthony, Jack Janveja, Richard Robben, Larry Spielvogel




With some 36 million square feet under management — and one of the largest campuses in the United States exposed to extreme low temperatures — building industry professionals at the University of Michigan have some experience managing the competing requirements of safety and economy in heat tracing technology.

February in Academia

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Intellectual Property

It is impossible to overestimate the sensitivity of this topic but poke at it, we will.  At the moment, the less written here; the better.   Much of this domain is outside our wheelhouse; though it has settled on a few first principles regarding patents, trademarks and copyrights relevant to the user-interest we describe in our ABOUT.

Many large research universities have a watchdog guarding its intellectual property and trying to generate income from it, and; of course, for branding.  We will dwell on salient characteristics of the intellectual property domain with which we reckon daily — highlighting the market actors and the standards they have agreed upon.

Innovation management


Everett Rogers: Diffusion of innovations

Protection of Intellectual Property in the Supply Chain

ASTM International Intellectual Property Policy

Healthcare Standards Institute IP Policy

International Code Council Copyright Protection

IEEE Patent Policy

NFPA Regulations and Policies

Underwriters Laboratory Patent Policy


Innovation and Competitiveness in Artificial Intelligence

The International Trade Administration (ITA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) is requesting public comments to gain insights on the current global artificial intelligence (AI) market. Responses will provide clarity about stakeholder concerns regarding international AI policies, regulations, and other measures which may impact U.S. exports of AI technologies. Additionally, the request for information (RFI) includes inquiries related to AI standards development. ANSI encourages relevant stakeholders to respond by ITA’s deadline of October 17, 2022.

Fueling U.S. Innovation and Competitiveness in AI: Respond to International Trade Administration’s Request for Information

Commerce Department Launches the National Artificial Intelligence Advisory Committee


Intellectual Property in the Age of Open Source

Innovation management

Readings / FRAND licensing in an Unwired world

Protection of Intellectual Property in the Supply Chain

United States Constitution / Article I, Section 8

The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.


Vinter uke 4 | 23. – 29. januar

Portrait of a Young Norwegian Girl – Hans Dahl, Norwegian (1849 – 1937)


mandag | 23. januar | Kollokvium 16:00 UTC

Intellectual Property


tirsdag | 24. januar | Kollokvium 16:00 UTC

Du froid


onsdag | 25. januar | Kollokvium 16:00 UTC



torsdag | 26. januar | Kollokvium 16:00 UTC



fredag | 27. januar | Kollokvium 16:00 UTC


Lørdag | 28. januar

søndag | 29. januar

Looking Ahead: Weeks 2023

World Clock

Crop Calendar Charts

List of multinational festivals and holidays


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