How much, and which parts of the physical campus remains if the pandemic renders a double-digit amount of it obsolete? How will competition among academic units to provide virtual reality instruction and research affect capitalization decisions?
Join our colloquium today when we break down the action of standards setting organizations in engaged in the rollout of 5G applications relevant to the safety and sustainability agenda of education communities.
We keep a weather-eye out for market-making by incumbent stakeholders who write standards in order to generate conformance revenue. Vendor lock-in is a double edged sword. Some technologies should be allowed to discover quality and price across the full span of the innovation curve before they become “standardized” by enforcers and administrators and assorted red-tape makers (who typically outnumber innovators at least 1000:1).
5G to be superceded by 6G.
Institute of Electronics, Communications and Information Technology, Queen’s University Belfast
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland
Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
We consider the cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink, where a very large number of distributed multiple-antenna access points (APs) serve many single-antenna users in the same time-frequency resource. A simple (distributed) conjugate beamforming scheme is applied at each AP via the use of local channel state information (CSI). This CSI is acquired through time-division duplex operation and the reception of uplink training signals transmitted by the users. We derive a closed-form expression for the spectral efficiency taking into account the effects of channel estimation errors and power control. This closed-form result enables us to analyze the effects of backhaul power consumption, the number of APs, and the number of antennas per AP on the total energy efficiency, as well as, to design an optimal power allocation algorithm. The optimal power allocation algorithm aims at maximizing the total energy efficiency, subject to a per-user spectral efficiency constraint and a per-AP power constraint. Compared with the equal power control, our proposed power allocation scheme can double the total energy efficiency. Furthermore, we propose AP selections schemes, in which each user chooses a subset of APs, to reduce the power consumption caused by the backhaul links. With our proposed AP selection schemes, the total energy efficiency increases significantly, especially for large numbers of APs. Moreover, under a requirement of good quality-of-service for all users, cell-free massive MIMO outperforms the colocated counterpart in terms of energy efficiency.
ABSTRACT: A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval. Time-division duplex operation combined with reverse-link pilots enables the base station to estimate the reciprocal forward- and reverse-link channels. The conjugate-transpose of the channel estimates are used as a linear precoder and combiner respectively on the forward and reverse links. Propagation, unknown to both terminals and base station, comprises fast fading, log-normal shadow fading, and geometric attenuation. In the limit of an infinite number of antennas a complete multi-cellular analysis, which accounts for inter-cellular interference and the overhead and errors associated with channel-state information, yields a number of mathematically exact conclusions and points to a desirable direction towards which cellular wireless could evolve. In particular the effects of uncorrelated noise and fast fading vanish, throughput and the number of terminals are independent of the size of the cells, spectral efficiency is independent of bandwidth, and the required transmitted energy per bit vanishes. The only remaining impairment is inter-cellular interference caused by re-use of the pilot sequences in other cells (pilot contamination) which does not vanish with unlimited number of antennas.
CLICK HERE for complete paper
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is currently soliciting U.S. industry feedback for a workshop covering 5G next-generation applications and networks for countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. ANSI, through the United States Trade and Development Agency-funded U.S. Indo-Pacific Standards Technology Cooperation Program, seeks a co-organizer from the U.S. private sector.
The workshop—tentatively planned for September 2020 in Vietnam—aims to build awareness on the extensive standards development work currently taking place for diverse applications that will run on 5G networks. The event will provide information and communications technology (ICT) enabled applications for autonomous vehicles and intelligent transportation systems, industrial Internet of Things (IoT), health care, energy utility industries, and other vertical applications where standards development is taking place. It will also provide insights to demonstrate how industry-driven standards development boosts innovations, close knowledge gaps about industry-led standards development activities, and facilitate cooperation and discussion between public and private sector participants from both the United States and ASEAN countries.
Interested stakeholders can contact email@example.com with suggestions or questions by
Friday, March 13, 2020.*
*Opportunities for observers of committee action are possible; though other arrangements may be needed for the Vietnam meeting in the fall. We will place this development on the agenda of our 5G teleconference. See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.