Tag Archives: Monday


Morning Shower

“The Bathing Pool” | Hubert Robert (1733–1808)

CLICK IMAGE to access complete text


Design Considerations for Hot Water Plumbing

Baseline Standards for Student Housing

Indoor plumbing has a long history, but it became widely available in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the United States, for example, the first indoor plumbing system was installed in the Governor’s Palace in Williamsburg, Virginia in the early 18th century. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that indoor plumbing became more common in middle-class homes.

One important milestone was the development of cast iron pipes in the 19th century, which made it easier to transport water and waste throughout a building. The introduction of the flush toilet in the mid-19th century also played a significant role in making indoor plumbing more practical and sanitary.

By the early 20th century, indoor plumbing had become a standard feature in most middle-class homes in the United States and other developed countries. However, it was still not widely available in rural areas and poorer urban neighborhoods until much later.

Smart Energy

Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne / International Exposition of Art and Technology in Modern Life

We follow the administration of the the US National Committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission; a member of an international committee administered by the International Electrotechnical Commission developing global  Smart Grid and Smart City concepts.   Related developments happen in the following committees:

TC 8 System aspects of electrical energy supply

SC 8A Grid integration of Renewable Energy Generation

SC 8B Decentralized Electrical Energy Systems

TC 13 Electrical energy measurement and control

TC 21 Secondary cells and batteries

21/1166/CDV  IEC 61427-2 ED2: Secondary cells and batteries for renewable energy storage – General requirements and methods of test – Part 2: On-grid applications | Close Date: 2023-06-16

SC 23K Electrical Energy Efficiency Products

TC 34 Lighting

TC 82 Solar photovoltaic energy systems

TC 120 Electrical Energy Storage Systems

TA 19 Environmental and energy aspects for multimedia systems and equipment

International Electrotechnical Commission | Consultations

Freely Available ICT Standards

We limit our interest to electrotechnology interoperability issues that are present in education communities (rather than product related issues).   We track coordinated action among the ISO/IEC/ITU:

ISO/IEC/ITU coordination – New work items (January 2023)

Note that there is what may appears to be a “competitor” standardization project at the ISO — TC 274 Lights and Lighting.  There is enough coordination between the IEC and the ISO that we ignore the slight overlap for our purposes.

We also collaborate with other US-based and other international universities through several societies of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).  The IEC also has several committees where leading practice is discovered and promulgated that influence electrotechnology research agendas in both the academic and business side of the education facility industry:

SyC Smart Cities: Electrotechnical aspects of Smart Cities

SyC Smart Energy

The ambitions of this batch of documents is to formalize the landscape of the emergent Smart City (and, accordingly, #SmartCampus) by doing the following:

  • Providing the rationale for the market relevance of the future standards being produced in the parent IEC technical committee.
  • Providing an indication of global or regional sales of products or services related to the TC/SC work and state the source of the data.
  • Providing standards that will be significantly effective for assessing regulatory compliance.

In electrotechnology, a great deal of research is conducted in US colleges and universities — some of it funded by federal agencies; some by the corporate sector.    Where appropriate we identify and highlight their research and findings — especially findings that will find a way into best practice literature that informs safety and sustainability in education communities.   Many IEC titles are referenced in ISO, IET, IEEE and NFPA consensus products.


Take, for example, the Association of Medical Imaging and Electrical Equipment Manufacturers (NEMA) — the Administrator of the USNC /IEC Technical Advisory Group of the USNA/IEC — frequently  releases material for US stakeholders to review.   The USNA.IEC also publishes a quarterly newsletter:

USNC Current | Winter 2023

There is a great deal of economic activity in this domain so we maintain our focus on the technical specifics presented in draft material.   About 80 percent of the work involved in standards setting is administrative.  Our focus has always been on the remaining 20 percent that involves a non-administrative skill set.  Because of copyright restrictions on draft material — very common in the standards setting systems in many nations — we are mindful of releasing the full text of draft documents intended for public consultation only.

We do it this way out of necessity.  There is no structured workspace provided by USNA/IEC at the moment; only emails with attachments among USNA/IEC members.   Instead, we use a combination content management system hosted by the University of Michigan and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.  We coordinate our review of the state of energy sector literature here and with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee.   All IEC products are on the standing agendas of our Energy, Power and Global colloquia.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

University of Michigan


Issue: [15-197]

Contact: Mike Anthony, Paul Green, Jim Harvey, Massimo Mittolo

Colleagues: Mahesh Illindala (Ohio State University), Giuseppe Parisi (Sapienza University of Roma), Loren Clark (University of Alberta). Jim Murphy (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory: University of California Berkeley),  Brian Marchionini (NEMA), Paul Green (University of Michigan)

Category: Electrical, Telecommunications, Energy Management, #SmartCampus, Informatics, Information & Communications Technology





Bruin Café

Large European universities such as Rijksuniversiteit Groningen are integrated into the fabric of the surrounding city. There are several ways in which this integration takes place:

Physical location: Many European universities are located in the heart of the city, often in historic buildings that have been repurposed for educational use. This central location means that the university is easily accessible to students and the general public, and that it is often surrounded by other cultural institutions, such as museums, theaters, and libraries.

Student life: The presence of a large student population can have a significant impact on the city’s culture and economy. Many European cities have developed a vibrant student culture, with cafes, bars, and other venues catering to the needs and interests of young people. This can help to create a sense of community between the university and the city, and can also bring economic benefits to local businesses.

Research and innovation: Large European universities are often at the forefront of research and innovation, and they can be important drivers of economic growth in the surrounding region. Many universities work closely with local businesses and industries, and they may also collaborate with other universities and research institutions in the area.

Cultural exchange: Universities can be important centers of cultural exchange, both for international students and for local residents. Many European universities offer language classes and other cultural programs that are open to the public, and they may also host lectures, concerts, and other events that are designed to promote cross-cultural understanding.

Overall, the integration of large European universities into the city is a complex and multifaceted process that can have a significant impact on the social, cultural, and economic life of the surrounding region.


Smart Grid Blockchains

Energy Academy

Media stúdzjes

Promovendus maakt recyclebaar rubber

Energy 400

Sie strahlt vor Freude über ihre Auszeichnung – TH-Alumna Melanie Klaus. Für ihre Bachelorarbeit im Bereich Erneuerbare Energien wurde sie vom Solarenergieförderverein Bayern geehrt. In ihrer Bachelorarbeit im Studiengang Elektro- und Informationstechnik untersuchte sie das Zusammenspiel von Wind- und Solarenergie und den Nutzen, der sich hieraus für die regenerative Energieerzeugung erzielen lässt. Untersucht wurde also die Nutzung der natürlichen Kombination von Wind und Sonne für die Energieerzeugung. Um die Rentabilität dieser Einspeisekombination zu ermitteln, hat Melanie Klaus ein Software-Tool entwickelt, welches zur Planung und Simulation abgestimmter Photovoltaik-Wind-Kombinationen dient und bereits für die Errichtung einer Photovoltaik-Anlage zu einem Windpark eingesetzt wird.

Starting 2023 we break down our coverage of education community energy codes and standards into two tranches:

Energy 200: Codes and standards for building premise energy systems.  (Electrical, heating and cooling of the building envelope)

Energy 300: Codes and standards that support the energy systems required for information and communication technology

Energy 400: Codes and standards for energy systems between campus buildings.  (District energy systems including interdependence with electrical and water supply)

A different “flavor of money” runs through each of these domains and this condition is reflected in best practice discovery and promulgation.  Energy 200 is less informed by tax-free (bonded) money than Energy 400 titles.

Some titles cover safety and sustainability in both interior and exterior energy domains so we simply list them below:

ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel Code

ASHRAE International 90.1 — Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

2018 International Green Construction Code® Powered by Standard 189.1-2017

NFPA 90 Building Energy Code

NFPA 855 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems

IEEE Electrical energy technical literature

ASTM Energy & Utilities Overview

Underwriters Laboratories Energy and Utilities

There are other ad hoc and open-source consortia that occupy at least a niche in this domain.  All of the fifty United States and the Washington DC-based US Federal Government throw off public consultations routinely and, of course, a great deal of faculty interest lies in research funding.

Please join our daily colloquia using the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

References: Energy 400


International Energy Agency World Energy Outlook 2022

Economics of Energy, Volume: 4.9 Article: 48 , James L. Sweeney, Stanford University

Global Warming: Scam, Fraud, or Hoax?, Douglas Allchin, The American Biology Teacher (2015) 77 (4): 309–313.

Helmholtz and the Conservation of Energy, By Kenneth L. Caneva, MIT Press

International District Energy Association Campus Energy 2023 Conference: February 29-March 2 (Grapevine Texas)

Gallery: Other Ways of Knowing Climate Change

Allston District Energy

Campus Bulk Electrical Distribution

Interdependent Water & Electricity Networks

Interoperability of Inverter-Based Resources

Gallery: Campus Steam Tunnels

Electrical Resource Adequacy


From our video archive:


Energy Standard for Data Centers

The most actively managed consensus standard for data center energy supply operating in education communities (and most others) is not published by the IEEE but rather by ASHRAE International — ASHRAE 90.4 Energy Standard for Data Centers (2019).  It is not required to be a free access title although anyone may participate in its development.   It is copyrighted and ready for purchase but, for our purpose here, we need only examine its scope and purpose.   A superceded version of 90.4 is available in the link below:

Third ISC Public Review Draft (January 2016)

Noteworthy: The heavy dependence on IEEE power chain standards as seen in the Appendix and Chapter 8.  Recent errata are linked below:



We provide the foregoing links for a deeper dive “into the weeds”.  Another addendum has been released for consultation; largely administrative:

ASHRAE 90.4 | Pages 60-61 | Consultation closes January 15, 2023.

It is likely that the technical committee charged with updating this standard are already at work preparing an updated version that will supercede the 2019 Edition.  CLICK HERE for a listing of Project Committee Interim Meetings.

We maintain many titles from the ASHRAE catalog on the standing agenda of our Mechanical, Energy 200/400, Data and Cloud teleconferences.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Originally posted Summer 2020.


ASHRAE International has released four new addenda to its energy conservation consensus document ASHRAE 90.4-2016 Energy Standard for Data Centers.  This document establishes the minimum energy efficiency requirements of data centers for design and construction, for the creation of a plan for operation and maintenance and for utilization of on-site or off-site renewable energy resources.

It is a relatively new document more fully explained in an article published by ASHRAE in 2016 (Click here).   The addenda described briefly:

Addendum a  – clarifies existing requirements in Section 6.5 as well as introduce new provisions to encourage heat recovery within data centers.

Addendum b  – clarifies existing requirements in Sections 6 and 11 and to provide guidance for taking credit for renewable energy systems.

Addendum d  – a response to a Request for Interpretation on the 90.4 consideration of DieselRotary UPS Systems (DRUPS) and the corresponding accounting of these systems in the Electrical Loss Component (ELC). In crafting the IC, the committee also identified several marginal changes to 90.4 definitions and passages in Section 8 that would add further clarity to the issue. This addendum contains the proposed changes for that aim as well as other minor changes to correct spelling or text errors, incorporate the latest ELC values into Section 11, and to refresh information in the Normative Reference.

Addendum e adds language to Section 11 intended to clarify how compliance with Standard 90.4 can be achieved through the use of shared systems.

Comments are due September 6th.   Until this deadline you may review the changes and comment upon them by by CLICKING HERE

Universitat de Barcelona


Education facility managers, energy conservation workgroups and sustainability professionals are encouraged to participate directly in the ASHRAE consensus standard development process.   Start at ASHRAE’s public commenting facility:

Online Standards Actions & Public Review Drafts

We maintain all ASHRAE products on the standing agenda of our Mechanical and Energy teleconferences.   We keep this title on our Infotech agenda.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [12-54]

Category: Telecommunications, Infotech, Energy

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Robert G. Arno, Neal Dowling, Jim Harvey, Mike Hiler, Robert Schuerger, Larry Spielvogel

Workspace / ASHRAE



Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet

As the U.S. member body to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) encourages its members and relevant stakeholders to participate in discovering standardization solutions in a broad range of technologies and markets with like-minded experts in other national standards bodies.  The full sweep of ANSI’s participation in consensus documents developed by the ISO is described in the link below:

ISO Programs – Overview

Today we revisit a product familiar to daily life at home and in business: coffee.   The ISO administers leading practice discovery and promulgation in the global coffee value chain through parent Technical Committee 34 (TC34) with the Association Française de Normalisation as the global Secretariat with the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas as the twinned Secretariat*.  Subcommittee 15 oversees standardization in the field of coffee and coffee products, covering the coffee chain from green coffee to consumption, in particular. Standardization includes terminology, sampling, test methods and analysis, product specifications and requirements for packaging, storage and transportation

From the ISO/TC 34 prospectus:

Business Plan ISO TC34 Food Products

Sample from ISO Online Browing Platform: (Expect strong access firewalls)

Coffee and coffee products — Vocabulary

Coffee — Sensory analysis — Vocabulary

Roasted ground coffee — Determination of moisture content

The Secretariats for this subcommittee is currently held by Colombia (ICONTEC) but, with ANSI announcing in 2019 that it is relinquishing its role as the US Technical Advisory Group Administrator in 2019, there has been no US stakeholder participating.  In 2019 ANSI posted an invitation for another US-based stakeholder to assume the voice of the United States:

ANSI Standards Action Page 34

ANSI US TAGs to the International Organization for Standardization | November 2021

Apart from the passion that young people have for fair trade in any market, we see this as an opportunity for faculty and students to gain insight into the geo-politics of food supply generally and the subtleties of coffee markets.   Business schools, agricultural colleges, international studies program developers who may be, and should be, interested in a leadership opportunity on behalf of the United States should communicate directly with ANSI’s ISO Team ((isot@ansi.org).

We devotes an hour every month to review public commenting opportunities on all international standards.  The work products of TC 34 appears on the standing agenda of both our Global and Food teleconferences.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.

Issue: [19-46]

Category: Academic, International

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Christine Fischer

ISO Guidance on Twinning




Coffee with the Rector

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