HP Critical Facilities Services | Bethesda, Maryland
DLB Associates | Chicago, Illinois
Abstract. The key feature of this article is the application of quantitative method for evaluating risk and conveying the results into a power system design that is scaled according to hazards present in any given emergency management district. These methods employ classical lumped parameter modeling of power chain architectures and can be applied to any type of critical facility, whether it is a stand-alone structure, or a portion of stand-alone structure, such as a police station or government center. This article will provide a risk assessment roadmap for one of the most common critical facilities that should be designated as COPS per NEC 708-a 911 call center. The existing methods of reliability engineering will be used in the risk assessment.
* Robert Schuerger is the lead author on this paper
Duncan G. Stroik is a practicing architect, author, and Professor of Architecture at the University of Notre Dame specializing in religious and classical architecture. Gathered here are images from Christ Chapel, Hillsdale College Michigan. His award-winning work includes the Our Lady of the Most Holy Trinity Chapel in Santa Paula, California, the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, and the Cathedral of Saint Joseph in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
For decades, application of National Electrical Code (NEC) rules for sizing services, feeders and branch circuits has resulted in unused capacity in almost all occupancy classes. US Department of Energy data compiled in 1999 indicates average load on building transformers between 10 and 25 percent. More recent data gathered by the educational facilities industry has verified this claim. Recognizing that aggressive energy codes are driving energy consumption lower, and that larger than necessary transformers create larger than necessary flash hazard, the 2014 NEC will provide an exception in Section 220.12 that will permit designers to reduce transformer kVA ratings and all related components of the power delivery system. This is a conservative, incremental step in the direction of reduced load density that is limited to lighting systems. More study of feeder and branch circuit loading is necessary to inform discussion about circuit design methods in future revisions of the NEC.
Abstract: We address the problem of predicting whether a driver facing the yellow-light-dilemma will cross the intersection with the red light. Based on driving simulator data, we propose a stochastic hybrid system model for driver behavior. Using this model combined with Gaussian process estimation and Monte Carlo simulations, we obtain an upper bound for the probability of crossing with the red light. This upper bound has a prescribed confidence level and can be calculated quickly on-line in a recursive fashion as more data become available. Calculating also a lower bound we can show that the upper bound is on average less than 3% higher than the true probability. Moreover, tests on driving simulator data show that 99% of the actual red light violations, are predicted to cross on red with probability greater than 0.95 while less than 5% of the compliant trajectories are predicted to have an equally high probability of crossing. Determining the probability of crossing with the red light will be important for the development of warning systems that prevent red light violations.
One characteristic of the “customer experience” of school children, dormitory residents, patients in university-affiliated hospitals and attendees of large athletic events is the quality of food. School districts and large research universities are responsible for hundreds of food service enterprises for communities that are sensitive to various points along the food supply chain.
The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) is one of the first names in standards setting for the technology and management of the major components of the global food supply chain. It has organized its ANSI-accredited standards setting enterprise into about 200 technical committees developing 260-odd consensus documents*. It throws off a fairly steady stream of public commenting opportunities; many of them relevant to agricultural equipment manufacturers (i.e, the Producer interest where the most money is) but enough of them relevant to consumers (i.e. the User interest where the least money is) and agricultural economics academic programs that we follow the growth of its best practice bibliography.
A few of the ASABE consensus documents that may be of interest to faculty and students in agricultural and environmental science studies are listed below:
Safety for Farmstead Equipment
Safety Color Code for Educational and Training Laboratories
Recommended Methods for Measurement and Testing of LED Products for Plant Growth and Development
Distributed Ledger Technology applications to the global food supply chain
The ASABE bibliography is dominated by product-related standards; a tendency we see in many business models of standards setting organizations because of the influence of global industrial conglomerates who can bury the cost of their participation into a sold product. Our primary interest lies in the movement of interoperability standards — much more difficult — as discussed in our ABOUT.
The home page for the ASABEs standards setting enterprise is linked below:
As of this posting we find no live consultation notices for interoperability standards relevant to education communities; though there are a few product-related standards open for comment usually announced in ANSI Standards Action. We always encourage our colleagues to participate directly in the ASABE standards development process. Students are especially welcomed into the ASABE Community. Jean Walsh (email@example.com) and Scott Cederquist (firstname.lastname@example.org) are listed as contacts.