Today in History

"History" is not about what happened. History is a "story" about what happened. History never says "Goodbye". History always says "See you later"


We hold “Open Office Hours” every day at 11:00 until 11:30 AM Eastern US Time for consultation on anything having to do with regulations, codes and standards that govern any dimension of the physical character of education communities.  If we need more time, we take it; or schedule another breakout session.

In the spring and fall you will need to wiggle the click-in time owing to national daylight savings practice.

Iowa’s One-room Schoolhouses


May 29, 1919: 

Total Solar Eclipse Observations Confirm Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity – During a total solar eclipse on May 29, 1919, British astronomer Arthur Eddington led an expedition to Príncipe and Sobral to observe the bending of starlight around the Sun. The observations confirmed predictions of Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, providing strong evidence for the theory.

May 28, 1788: 

The Federalist papers—a series of 85 essays on the proposed new U.S. Constitution and on the nature of republican government, written in 1787–88 by Alexander HamiltonJames Madison, and John Jay—were published in book form.

May 27, 1660: 

The Treaty of Copenhagen between Sweden and Denmark-Norway was signed, concluding a generation of warfare between the two powers as well as helping to establish the modern boundaries of DenmarkNorway, and Sweden.

May 26, 1876: 

The Challenger Expedition, a groundbreaking oceanographic exploration cruise carried out by the British Admiralty and the Royal Society, concluded successfully.

May 25, 1925: 

Scopes Trial Begins – The Scopes Trial, also known as the “Monkey Trial,” began in Dayton, Tennessee. John T. Scopes, a high school teacher, was charged with teaching evolution in violation of a state law. The trial garnered significant attention and sparked debates over the teaching of evolution in American schools and universities.

1961: President Kennedy’s Special Message to Congress on Education – On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy delivered a special message to Congress on education, emphasizing the importance of educational opportunities and calling for increased federal funding for education. This speech set the stage for subsequent legislation aimed at improving education, including the establishment of the federal student loan program.

May 24, 1883: 

A brilliant feat of 19th-century engineering, the Brooklyn Bridge—spanning the East River from Brooklyn to Manhattan Island in New York City—opened this day in 1883, designed by civil engineer John Augustus Roebling.

May 23, 1707:

Swedish botanist and explorer Carolus Linnaeus, the first to frame principles for defining genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them, was born in Råshult.

May 22, 1964:

President Lyndon B. Johnson, speaking at the University of Michigan, outlined the goals of his “Great Society,” saying that it “rests on abundance and liberty for all” and “demands an end to poverty and racial injustice.”

May 21, 1881:

Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross

May 20, 1862:

U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act, which provided 160 acres of public land virtually free of charge to those who had lived on and cultivated the land for at least five years.

May 19, 1891:

The Carnegie Library in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which was one of the first public libraries in the United States funded by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, opened its doors to the public. This event marked an important milestone in providing access to educational resources and promoting literacy.

May 18, 2005:

The European Constitution, the Maastricht Treaty aimed at establishing a constitution for the European Union, was signed by representatives of EU member states in Rome.

May 17, 1865:

The International Telegraph Union (ITU), which later became the International Telecommunication Union, was established  in Paris, France. It was founded as a specialized agency of the United Nations to coordinate and regulate international telecommunications and establish standards for telegraphy and later other forms of communication.

May 16, 1866:

The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed. It connected Europe and North America, enabling near-instantaneous communication between the continents.   See: Charles Tilston Bright

May 15, 1941:

British cryptographers at Bletchley Park, including Alan Turing, successfully broke the high-level German Enigma code, significantly impacting World War II. This breakthrough in code-breaking played a crucial role in Allied intelligence efforts.  See: “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” 1950 Alan Turing

May 14, 1796:

English physician Edward Jenner conducted the first successful smallpox vaccination on 8-year-old James Phipps, marking a significant milestone in the development of immunization.

May 13, 1914:

The first standardized test for color blindness was introduced by the American Optical Company.

May 12, 1928:

The first fashion academy in the United States, the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT), was founded in New York City.

May 11 1997:

IBM’s chess-playing computer, Deep Blue, defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov for the first time in a six-game match.

May 10, 1940:

Winston Churchill is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain.

May 9, 1960:

The US Food and Drug Administration approves the first birth control pill, called Enovid.  There is contradicting information setting the date at June 23, 1960.   Since that time more than 40 birth control methods have evolved through research and invention; making partial birth abortion virtually unnecessary and (in the case of government funded full birth abortion) a crime against humanity.

Since education communities are largely places for young people in the family formation stage of life, this topic is of central importance, though well outside our primary expertise, interest and resource availability (FYI: Next Generation).

May 8, 1973:

The Skylab space station is launched by NASA, becoming the first space station operated by the United States.

May 7, 1884: 

Leland Stanford Jr. University, now known as Stanford University, opened its doors in Palo Alto, California. The university was founded by railroad tycoon Leland Stanford and his wife, Jane, in memory of their son, who died of typhoid fever at the age of 15.

May 6, 2023:

The coronation of Charles III and his wife, Camilla, as king and queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms took place at Westminster Abbey. Charles had acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022, upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II.  After the service, members of the royal family travelled to Buckingham Palace in a state procession and appeared on the palace’s balcony. Charles and Camilla’s coronation service was altered from past British coronations to represent multiple faiths, cultures, and communities across the United Kingdom, and was shorter than his mother’s coronation in 1953.

May 5, 1862:

Cinco de Mayo is a Mexican holiday that is widely celebrated in the United States and other countries. It commemorates the Mexican Army’s victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862. While it is not a national holiday in Mexico, it is still observed in the state of Puebla and other parts of the country, and is celebrated around the world as a day to recognize and celebrate Mexican culture and heritage.

May 4, 1626:

Dutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on what is now Manhattan Island which would eventually become the site of New York City.


Students at Kent State University in Ohio were shot and killed by National Guard troops during a protest against the Vietnam War. The incident sparked protests and strikes at colleges and universities across the country.

May 3, 1715:

Edmund Halley observed a total solar eclipse in England and successfully used it to determine the Moon’s position relative to the Earth.

May 2, 1611:

The King James Bible was published, providing the “killer app” for the spread of the English language throughout what has been defined (through usage) as the Western World and the Anglosphere.

May 1, 1886:  

During the Haymarket labor demonstration in Chicago supporting the eight-hour workday, a bomb exploded, leading to a violent clash between the police and the demonstrators. Several people were killed and many were injured, including police officers. The incident became a turning point in the labor movement, and May Day came to symbolize the struggle for workers’ rights and the fight against unjust working conditions.


April 30, 1975:

The South Vietnamese stronghold of Saigon (now known as Ho Chi Minh City) falls to People’s Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong.  Evacuation of American Embassy.

The Vietnam War lasted for over a decade, from the early 1960s until the mid-1970s, and during that time Democratic leadership escalated it mightily while Republican leaders advocated a policy of “Vietnamization” to withdraw American involvement.

Contrary to claims in the history books of United States public schools and what has since become the alliance of Big Media and the Democratic Party, Republican President Dwight Eisenhower did not “start” the Vietnam War; though he supported the French goal of resisting the spread of violent ex-colonial governments after World War Two.

United States involvement kicked into high gear beginning with the presidency of Democrat John F. Kennedy; period. The war continued through the presidency of Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson (former elementary school teacher and advocate for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965) who escalated it mightily.

Democrat Johnson’s failure to “win” the war drove his decision not to seek a second term as President in 1968.  Ultimately, it was Republican President Nixon who facilitated the Paris Peace Accords of 1973; likely the result of the intense bombing campaigns of “Operation Linebacker” that shook the conscience of the American people and the world.  The bombing campaign succeeded in “making peace” but not without a making a permanent scar upon all civilization.

Eight months later, on August 8, 1974 President Nixon resigned leaving Republican Gerald Ford, and University of Michigan graduate, to end the war by presiding over the evacuation of US troops and others from Saigon.  An uncountable number of Southeast Asian, French and American young people perished; easily in the millions.

April 29, 1933:

The U.S. Seventh Army’s 45th Infantry Division liberates Dachau, the first concentration camp established by Germany’s Nazi regime. A major Dachau subcamp was liberated the same day by the 42nd Rainbow Division.

April 28, 2003:

The Human Genome Project was completed, sequencing the entire human genome. This project was a collaboration between scientists from around the world, and its completion marked a major milestone in our understanding of genetics and human biology.

April 27, 1667:

John Milton’s epic poem “Paradise Lost” was first published in England. The work is considered a masterpiece of English literature and a landmark in the development of the epic genre.  Philosophy Insight: What We Should Learn from Milton’s Paradise Lost

April 26, 1986:

A catastrophic accident occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine, resulting in a massive release of radioactive material into the environment. It remains one of the worst nuclear disasters in history.

April 25, 1953:

Francis Crick and James Watson publish their famous paper describing the double helix structure of DNA in the journal Nature.

April 24, 1800:

The United States Congress approves a bill establishing the Library of Congress.

April 23, 1954:

Bell Labs announces the invention of the first practical solar cell.

April 22, 1820: 

The first public college in the United States, Indiana University, was chartered by the state of Indiana.


April 21, 1970:

The first Earth Day was observed on college and university campuses across the United States. This environmental movement was largely initiated and led by college and university students.

The Malthusian theory of population growth, proposed by economist Thomas Malthus in the late 18th century in his paper — “An Essay on the Principle of Population” — did not come to fruition during his lifetime.  In the modern era the premise of his inquiry has morphed into the Climate Change Agenda supported by the education industry.

April 20, 1871:

The foundation stone for the Royal Albert Hall in London was laid. The building, designed by Francis Fowke and Henry Y.D. Scott, is an iconic concert hall and one of London’s most famous landmarks.

April 19 1775:

The American Revolutionary War began with the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts, which marked the first military engagements of the conflict.

April 18, 1775:

American Revolution began with the midnight ride of Paul Revere, who warned the colonial militia that the British army was approaching.

April 17, 1895:

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology established the Department of Electrical Engineering and appointed Charles Proteus Steinmetz, a prominent electrical engineer, as its first professor.

April 16, 1705:

Queen Anne of England knighted Isaac Newton for his contributions to science and mathematics, including his laws of motion and universal gravitation.

April 15, 1912:

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology moves from its original campus in Boston to its current location in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT is a prestigious private research university known for its emphasis on science, engineering, and technology.

April 14, 1865:

President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, D.C. Lincoln was the first U.S. president to be assassinated, and his death had a profound impact on American history.

April 13 2005:

First video uploaded to YouTube: Jawed Karim, one of the co-founders of YouTube, uploaded the first video to the platform titled “Me at the zoo.” This marked the beginning of YouTube’s exponential growth as a popular video-sharing platform that has transformed the way people consume and share video content on the internet.

April 12, 1861:

The American Civil War began as Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter in South Carolina, marking the start of the Civil War between the Confederate States of America and the Union.

11 April 1974:

The wife of Mike Anthony (Founder of Standards Michigan) was born.

10 April 1790:

The United States Patent System is established when President George Washington signs the Patent Act of 1790, which provides the rules for granting patents.

9 April 1865:

Robert E. Lee, the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant, the commander of the Union Army of the Potomac, effectively ending the American Civil War. The war had a significant impact on the development of science and technology in the United States, as both sides made extensive use of new inventions and innovations such as telegraphs, railroads, and ironclad warships.

8 April 1993:

The World Wide Web became publicly available, as the European Organization for Nuclear Research made the software for the Web freely available to anyone.

7 April 1971: 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology sends the first email, which is transmitted over the ARPANET, a precursor to the internet.

6 April 1896: 

The opening ceremonies are held for the first modern Olympic Games, hosted by the University of Athens in Greece.

5 April 1621: 

The Mayflower departed for England after having deposited 102 Pilgrims at what became the American colony of Plymouth (Massachusetts).

4 April 1995: 

The first version of the programming language Java was released by Sun Microsystems.  . In 2010, Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle Corporation for $7.4 billion. After the acquisition, Oracle integrated Sun’s hardware and software technologies into its own product portfolio. The Sun brand and product names were gradually phased out, and many of Sun’s popular products, such as Java and Solaris, continue to be developed and supported by Oracle. 

3 April 1973: 

The first handheld mobile phone call was made by Martin Cooper, an engineer at Motorola. Cooper made the call to his rival at Bell Labs, Joel Engel, to announce that he had successfully created a portable cell phone.

2 April 1969:

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology students begin a protest against the university’s involvement in military research. The protest leads to a series of clashes with police and results in the arrest of over 200 students.  According to data from the National Science Foundation, in the most recent fiscal year for which data is available (2020), the university that received the most funding from the Department of Defense for military research was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with over $1.1 billion in total funding.

Other universities that received significant funding from the Department of Defense for military research in 2020 include Johns Hopkins University ($2.88 billion), University of Michigan ($1.74 billion), Stanford University ($1.39 billion) and Harvard University ($1.25 billion).   Johns Hopkins University if 40 miles away from Washington D.C.  CLICK HERE for more current information.

1 April 1976:

In 1976, the Apple Computer Company was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne. Jobs and Wozniak were college dropouts who had met at the University of California, Berkeley.

31 March 1880:

The first university course on electromagnetism was taught by James Clerk Maxwell at the University of Cambridge.

30 March 1972

The California Supreme Court rules in Serrano v. Priest that the state’s school finance system, which relied heavily on local property taxes, was unconstitutional because it resulted in unequal funding for schools. The ruling had major implications for the state’s universities and colleges, as they too relied on local property taxes for funding.

29 March 1961

The Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified, giving residents of Washington, D.C., the right to vote in presidential elections. This was significant for colleges and universities in the District of Columbia, as it gave their students a voice in national politics.

28 March 1899:

The world’s first international radio transmission was sent from England to France by Guglielmo Marconi, marking a major milestone in the development of wireless communication.


27 March 1969:

The first campus-wide computer network — ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, an arm of the United State Defense Department) –was established by Bob Taylor at the University of California Los Angeles. This laid the foundation for the internet as we know it today.

26 March 2019:

The European Parliament approved new copyright laws that aimed to better protect the rights of artists and publishers online, but which faced criticism over potential restrictions on free speech.  Titled Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market each member state should have implemented it by 7 June 2021.

25 March 1911:

While at the University of Munich the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld introduces the concept of the fine-structure constant, which is a fundamental constant of nature that characterizes the strength of the electromagnetic force.  It is denoted by the symbol alpha (α) and is approximately equal to 1/137.   The fine structure constant informs the theoretical framework of  quantum computing; a competitive branch of research that is accelerating in education communities — e.g. University of Michigan Quantum Engineering Lab.

The facilities used for quantum computing are called quantum labs, and they are designed to provide a highly controlled and isolated environment for quantum systems. These labs typically have specialized equipment, such as cryogenic cooling systems and highly sensitive detectors, that are necessary for manipulating and measuring qubits.  In addition to the specialized equipment, quantum labs are designed to minimize external disturbances and to shield the quantum systems from noise and interference. This is achieved through various means, such as using highly conductive metals to shield against electromagnetic radiation and using vibration isolation systems to minimize mechanical disturbances.

24 March 1882:

Robert Koch discovers the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis, known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  He is widely respected as the founding father of modern microbiology.  He conducted much of this research at his laboratory at the Imperial Health Office in Berlin.  Later in his career, Koch also worked at the University of Berlin and founded the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin. His work in bacteriology and tuberculosis had a significant impact on public health in Germany and around the world.

The International Organization for Standardization 17025 is a general standard for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories, and it includes specific requirements for microbiology laboratories. The standard covers areas such as laboratory management, personnel competence, measurement traceability, equipment and facilities, and method validation and verification.  ISO 17025 is used by accreditation bodies around the world to assess the competence of microbiology laboratories. Laboratories that comply with ISO 17025 are deemed to have demonstrated their ability to produce reliable and accurate results.

March 24, 2020:  

Former President Donald J. Trump expressed his opposition to COVID-19 lockdowns on multiple occasions during the pandemic. He believed that lockdowns would do more harm than good, arguing that they would damage the American economy and society.  During a Fox News virtual town hall, President Trump stated, “I’m not looking at months, I can tell you right now. We’re going to be opening up our country. Because that causes problems that, in my opinion, could be far bigger problems.”

President Trump also argued that lockdowns would lead to increased mental health issues and a rise in drug and alcohol abuse. He believed that the cure could not be worse than the disease and that Americans should be able to make their own decisions about how to manage the risks associated with the pandemic.

23 March 753 B.C:

According to legend, the city of Rome is founded by Romulus and Remus.

The first university in Rome, Italy was the Sapienza University of Rome, which is also known as the University of Rome La Sapienza. It was founded in 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII as the Studium Urbis, and it is one of the oldest universities in Europe.

Standards Michigan collaboration:

Resilience of Hospital Power Systems in the Digital Age

22 March 1960:

Arthur Schawlow and Charles Townes at Columbia University receive a patent for the laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

Safe Use of Lasers in Research

21 March 1804:

While at the Collège de France mathematician and astronomer Pierre-Simon Laplace (“The French Newton”) presented his “nebular hypothesis,” which proposed that the solar system formed from a giant cloud of gas and dust.

20 March 1854:

The Republican Party was founded in Ripon, Wisconsin in opposition to the expansion of slavery favored by the Democrat Party.  (See Kansas-Nebraska Act, which permitted the Democratic Party to expand slavery into the new territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase).

19 March 1916:

Albert Einstein published his Theory of General Relativity in the Annalen der Physik. This theory revolutionized our understanding of gravity and space-time.

He began his studies in 1896 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich. He initially applied to study electrical engineering but failed the entrance exam. He then took a second entrance exam and was admitted to the physics program.  After completing his studies at ETH, Einstein worked as a patent clerk in Bern, Switzerland for several years. During this time, he continued to conduct research in his spare time.

In 1901, Einstein obtained his doctorate from the University of Zurich for his thesis on the dimensions of molecules.

Throughout his career, Einstein also held academic positions at several universities, including the University of Bern, University of Zurich, Charles University in Prague, and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

18 March 1937:

A natural gas explosion in a school in New London, Texas killed 294 people, most of them children. This disaster led to significant changes in natural gas regulations and safety standards.

Natural Gas Transmission & Distribution

17 March 1998:

Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement of 1998, which marked the end of decades of sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland known as “The Troubles.” While the agreement was not signed on March 17th, it is celebrated as a major milestone in Irish history and the peace process is often remembered on St. Patrick’s Day.

While the agreement did not have a direct impact on colleges and universities in Ireland, it did have an indirect impact on higher education in Northern Ireland by helping to bring an end to decades of sectarian violence and political instability in the region.  There has been increased investment in higher education in Northern Ireland, with a focus on promoting cross-community relations and encouraging students from all backgrounds to attend college or university. This has led to the development of new programs and initiatives designed to promote diversity and inclusion in higher education, as well as increased collaboration between universities and other institutions in the region.

Winston Churchill, former British Prime Minister, is made an honorary citizen of the United States by act of Congress. He had previously delivered his famous “Iron Curtain” speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, in 1946.

16 March 1998:

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was established with the goal of improving education at all levels in the United States.












15 March 1493:

Christopher Columbus returns to Spain after his first voyage to the Americas, bringing back a variety of plant and animal specimens that would eventually have a significant impact on the development of science and agriculture.  Columbus made landfall in the Bahamas on October 12, 1492 marking the beginning of European exploration and colonization of the Americas. This date is now celebrated in the United States as Columbus Day, a federal holiday that commemorates the arrival of Columbus in the Americas.

14 March 1923:

Lee De Forest demonstrated his “Phonofilm” sound-on-film process, marking a significant advancement in motion picture technology.

5 March 1955:

Winston Churchill, former British Prime Minister, is made an honorary citizen of the United States by act of Congress. He had previously delivered his famous “Iron Curtain” speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, in 1946.

4 March 1954:

The first mass inoculation of children against polio using the Salk vaccine takes place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the University of Pittsburgh.

3 March 1820:

 The U.S. Congress passes the Missouri Compromise.  The Missouri Compromise was a federal legislation that balanced desires of northern states to prevent expansion of slavery by southern state Democrats

2 March 1791:

Longest serving US Secretary of State — Thomas Jefferson was appointed —  a position he held for eight years. Jefferson is one of the most well-known founding fathers of the United States, and he played a crucial role in shaping the country’s political and diplomatic landscape.

Jefferson played a pivotal role in the founding of the University of Virginia;* believing that education was essential for a democracy to function properly, and he envisioned the University of Virginia as a model of academic excellence and intellectual freedom.  Jefferson served as the university’s primary architect, designing the layout of the campus, the curriculum, and the governance structure. He also personally selected the faculty members and established the library collection. He emphasized the importance of the study of the classics, as well as modern languages, mathematics, and science.

* Thomas Jefferson did not wear a COVID-19 face mask, as shown in this video.


24 February 1969:  In Case 303  U.S. 503 Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, the United States Supreme Court held that students do not “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or expression at the schoolhouse gate,” and that school officials may only restrict speech if it materially and substantially disrupts school activities.


30 January 1965: Winston Churchill was laid to rest at St. Martin’s Church in Bladon, Oxfordshire, England.

17 January 1961:  President Eisenhower, in his farewell address to the nation as the 34th President of the United States, delivered on January 17, 1961, warned about the dangers of the “military-industrial complex.” He used the term to describe the relationship and potential influence of the military establishment and defense industry on government policy and spending. Eisenhower expressed concerns about the unchecked growth of the military-industrial complex and its potential to undermine democracy and erode civil liberties.


15 December 1791: The US Bill of Rights was ratified.




19 September 1796: George Washington, as the first President of the United States, warned citizens of the dangers of foreign entanglements and excessive military spending in his Farewell Address, delivered on September 19, 1796. Washington warned against forming long-term alliances and involving the nation in unnecessary wars, which could burden the country financially and endanger its peace and prosperity. His warnings about avoiding foreign entanglements and maintaining fiscal responsibility continue to be cited in discussions about U.S. foreign policy and military engagements.


1 August 1936: At the International Congress of Mathematicians held in Oslo the first Fields Medal was awarded to three mathematicians: Lars Ahlfors from Finland, and Jesse Douglas and Hermann Weyl, both from the United States. Lars Ahlfors was recognized for his contributions to the theory of Riemann surfaces and his work on the uniformization theorem. Jesse Douglas was recognized for his work on the Plateau problem, which involves finding the minimal surface area that can be spanned by a given boundary curve. Hermann Weyl was recognized for his contributions to the theory of Lie groups and the theory of analytic functions.



June 21, 1859 Henry Ossawa Tanner, the African-American painter was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, and is considered to be one of the most important artists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tanner’s work often focused on religious themes, and he was known for his use of light and shadow to create dramatic effects in his paintings.  “The Banjo Lesson” (1893)


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