Tag Archives: WK1


Pathways 100

Today we break down the literature for exterior and interior pathways in education communities.   We limit the term “pathway” to refer to human pathways (as in egress and ingress paths); not wiring or piping pathways.   Maximum distance of travel from within a building and along an egress path toward safety is a core topic in building safety literature.  Starting 2023 we will break down coverage of subject catalogs and bibliographies:

Pathways 100: Survey of all titles for both the exterior and interior environments

Pathways 200: Review of codes, standards and guidelines for building interiors

Pathways 300: Review of codes, standards and guidelines campus environment outside the buildings; all seaons.

Pathways 500: Review of noteworthy litigation.   Campus pathways are rich in possibilities for legal actions so we will refresh our understanding of the landmark decisions.

This breakdown is “somewhat” inspired by recent action by ASHRAE International to expand the scope of ASHRAE 90.1 to heating and cooling environments outside buildings.   The new title of ASHRAE 901. includes the word “Site”, which is another way of saying “the world” outside buildings.   Standards Michigan commented on the consequences of doing this in the proposal stages in 2020-2021.

The topic involves titles from many standards setting organizations; among them:

American National Standards Institute

C136-series for street lighting

International Code Council (accessible and useable ingress and egress entrances, paths and exits)

International Building Code: Chapter 10 Means of Egress

ICC A117 Accessibility Meeting Agenda December 15 2022 (Pathways)

ICC A117.1 2023 Meeting Calendar Accessible and Useable Buildings

Modifications for A117.1 12-1-2022 meeting

A117.1 11-17-2022 Agenda 20

A117.1 7-28-2022 Minutes 12

IFC §909.21.6 Proposal FS118-21 Pressurization systems for elevator pathways (now being discussed during the ICC Group A Committee Action Hearings in September)

American Society of Civil Engineers (roads, sidewalks)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME A17.1-2019: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (wayfinding along unofficial footpaths using the internet of small things)

Education & Healthcare Facility Electrotechnology

Recommended Practice for the Design of Power Systems Supplying Lighting Systems in Commercial and Industrial Facilities

Wayfinding: Current Research

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Fire Protection Association (fire protection for interior premises, fire truck routes, electric signage, security)

2021 NFPA 101 Life Safety Code

Chapter 3 Means of Egress

Chapter 12-13 Assembly Occupancies

Chapter 14-15 Educational Occupancies

Chapter 18-19 Health Care Occupancies

2022 Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems

Chapter 5 – Emergency Power Supply: Energy Sources, Converters and Accessories

ASTM International Committee C09 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates

Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates

…And about 20 others.

We might venture onto the minefield of sensitivities about signage: too much, too many, too big, too small?  There are signs everywhere in academia.

Many titles in the foregoing list are inspired by legal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act administered by the US Department of Justice

As usual, we’ll only have time to identify the titles and concepts in motion and set up a separate markup session.   Open to everyone; use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Texas Tech


International Building Code §3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 

2023 National Electrical Code Article 420 — Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps

2023 National Electrical Code Article 600 – Electric Signs and Outline Lighting

2023 National Electrical Code Article 620 — Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators, Moving Walks, Lifts and Chairlifts


Shaping the Sidewalk Experience

The 8 Principles of Sidewalks

Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

“The Via Appia: A Case Study in the Political Geography of Imperialism” Hannah Friedman.  This article, published in the Journal of Historical Geography in 2011, examines the Appian Way as a product of Roman imperialism and a reflection of Roman attitudes toward the landscape and its inhabitants. The author draws on both textual and archaeological evidence to explore the road’s impact on the regions it passed through.

“The Appian Way: The Road that Built the Roman Empire” by Richard Talbert – Cambridge University Press 2012.  A a comprehensive study of the Appian Way and its significance to the Roman Empire. The author draws on a wide range of archaeological and historical evidence to explore the road’s construction, use, and legacy.



Geometric Design of Highways & Streets

Michigan State University

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols, and guidelines that are used in highway design and construction throughout the United States.  Despite its name, the association represents not only highways but air, rail, water, and public transportation as well.   Its technical committees are responsible for route numbering recommendations.

Although AASHTO sets transportation standards and policy for the United States as a whole, AASHTO is not an agency of the federal government; rather it is an organization of the states themselves. Policies of AASHTO are not federal laws or policies, but rather are ways to coordinate state laws and policies in the field of transportation.

One of its consensus products — the so-called “Green Book” — is heavily referenced in campus design guidelines and construction contracts because most education communities exist within municipal infrastructure.   Power, water supply, sewers to schools and campuses large and small all tend to follow transportation pathways.  The Green Book is revised periodically, the 2018 Edition the most recent.


We do not advocate in this product at the moment but follow the movement in concepts relevant to education communities; notably the recent reorganization that emphasizes transportation of people, rather than focusing primarily on moving vehicles.  A new chapter discusses multimodal level of service and puts greater emphasis on lower-speed, walkable, urban zones in which new mobility technologies are emerging (such as micro-scooters on campuses)

We maintain AASHTO consensus products on our Pathways and Mobility colloquia.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting, open to everyone.

Standing Agenda / Pathways


Modelling and Simulation Wayfinding in Unfamiliar Campus Environment

Designing digital signage for better wayfinding performance: New visitors’ navigating campus of university

Wayfinding Behavior Detection by Smartphone

Human Behavior During Emergency Evacuation: Cell Transmission Model

Almawhere 2.0: a pervasive system to facilitate indoor wayfinding

Managing egress of crowd during infrastructure disruption

A Fuzzy-Theory-Based Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Evacuation From a Multiple-Exit Room

Emergency exit sign detection system for visually impaired people

Evacuating Routes in Indoor-Fire Scenarios with Selection of Safe Exits on Known and Unknown Buildings Using Machine Learning

Exits choice based on cellular automaton model for pedestrians’ evacuation

Computer aided architectural design: Wayfinding complexity analysis

Using space syntax to understand knowledge acquisition and wayfinding in indoor environments

Wayfinding by auditory cues in virtual environments

Computer Vision Method in Means of Egress Obstruction Detection

Map Displays And Landmark Effects On Wayfinding In Unfamiliar Environments

Informing the design of an automated wayfinding system for individuals with cognitive impairments

Virtual Reality to Study Pedestrian Wayfinding: Motivations and an Experiment on Usability

AR-enabled wayfinding kiosk

Research on the terrain cognition in small-scale environment

A comparison study of stationary and mobile eye tracking on EXITs design in a wayfinding system

CityGuide: A Seamless Indoor-Outdoor Wayfinding System for People With Vision Impairments

Poster: Evaluation of Wayfinding Aid Techniques in Multi-Level Virtual Environments

Automatic Optimization of Wayfinding Design

Implementing game artificial intelligence to decision making of agents in emergency egress

Navigating MazeMap: Indoor human mobility, spatio-logical ties and future potential

Energy conservation from retrofit ‘exit‘ sign in public premises


Dynamic Exit Signs

Dynamic exit signs are a type of emergency exit signage that uses active illumination and changes in light to draw attention to the nearest exit in case of an emergency. Unlike traditional exit signs that use static or passive lighting to indicate exit locations, dynamic exit signs incorporate lighting systems that respond to specific environmental conditions or power outages, which can help to guide people to safety more efficiently.

There are several types of dynamic exit signs, including:

  • Photoluminescent exit signs: These signs absorb and store light energy from ambient sources, such as room lighting or sunlight, and then glow brightly in the dark when the power goes out.
  • LED exit signs: These signs use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to create animated or flashing signs that can better catch people’s attention.
  • Electroluminescent exit signs: These signs use electrically charged phosphors to produce a bright, uniform light source that can be more visible in low-light or smoke-filled environments.

Overall, dynamic exit signs are designed to enhance visibility and guide people to safety during an emergency, and they can be an important part of an overall emergency preparedness plan.


International Building Code: Chapter 10 Means of Egress

Life Safety Code: Chapter 7 Means of Egress

National Electrical Code: Article 700 Emergency Systems 

Life Safety Code

Emergency and Standby Power Systems


University of Michigan

Western University Ontario

Trinity College

Mississippi State University


Shelton State Community College Alabama

Winona State University

Oklahoma City Community College

University of Illinois

Bucknell University Pennsylvania

St. Francis Xavier College Missouri

University of Mississippi

University of North Dakota

University of Montana

Gardner-Webb University North Carolina

University of California Berkeley

Auburn University Alabama


Indiana University

Sam Houston State University Texas

Otago University New Zealand

Hillsdale College Michigan


ISO 8601:2004 Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times

National Institute of Science & Technology: Time and Frequency

National Institute of Science & Technology: Current Reliability of the WWVB Time Code

NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm & Signaling Code Chapter 23: Protected Premises Alarm and Signaling Systems

College students create the ultimate hangover cure

Two Yale University seniors have created a product they believe will cure what ails their peers — and many others: hangovers.

Margaret Morse and Liam McClintock wanted a supplement that would allow them to have fun on a night out, but would not impede on being able to work the next morning.

What causes hangovers to begin with? Morse, a molecular cellular and developmental biology major, told local news outlet WTNH, “There’s an acetaldehyde build up. There is a vitamin and electrolyte loss. There is a glutamine rebound and there are immunological disturbances.”

Their proposed solution is SunUp, a powdered citrus-flavored supplement filled with vitamins and nutrients.

“This is a powder that you take before you start drinking and it helps your liver deal with the stress you’re putting it under when you drink,” McClintock told WTNH. According to the New Haven Register, one would drink SunUp in a glass of water around an hour before they start drinking.  While one might believe dehydration is the cause of hangovers, SunUp’s website explains that it is actually a symptom. “These two phenomena are concurrent because of the diuretic effects of alcohol, but dehydration does not cause the actual hangover feeling,” says the site’s FAQ.  SunUp instead focuses on combating four root causes of a hangover: acetaldehyde building, vitamin and electrolyte loss, glutamine rebound and immunological disturbances.

“It’s intended for productive workers,” McClintock told WTNH. “Like ourselves who like to have a social life, like to go out and have a couple of drinks but also need to be productive the next day and get up and have work to do.”

Morse and McClintock have received positive feedback from fellow students and the Yale community. They’ve brought it to a pharmaceutical company, and it could be available in April. SunUp will retail for $5; if you want to pre-order, you can purchase through the company’s Indiegogo page.

Yale University Office of Facilities

Signs, Signs, Signs

Our first impression of a community is its visual environment, which is reflected from the pretty integration of the built and natural forms. Visual pollution is defined as the whole of irregular formations that are unattractive and affects people’s ability to enjoy or appreciate the view and vista.  Anything that interferes with the “pretty scenes” and other distortion may become a cause of visual pollution. With the rapid increase of population world widebuilding sector became the major source of visual pollution especially in the city center.

Join us today when we sweep through the surprisingly large catalog of titles devoted to signage.  We will borrow from our previous coverage of pathway standards.   Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.


Visual Pollution


Noteworthy court cases involving signage on colleges and universities:

  1. Widmar v. Vincent (1981): In this Supreme Court case, the court held that public universities cannot discriminate against student groups based on their religious or political beliefs, including the display of signs or other expressive activities.
  2. Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969): This Supreme Court case involved a challenge to a school district’s ban on wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War. The court held that students have a First Amendment right to express their views through symbols and signs, as long as it does not disrupt the educational environment.
  3. Healy v. James (1972): In this Supreme Court case, the court held that colleges and universities cannot impose a prior restraint on student speech, including the display of signs, unless there is a clear and present danger of imminent violence or disruption.
  4. Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (1995): In this Supreme Court case, the court held that public universities cannot discriminate against student groups based on their viewpoint, including the display of signs or other expressive activities.
  5. Texas v. Johnson (1989): This Supreme Court case involved a challenge to a Texas law that prohibited the desecration of the American flag. The court held that flag burning is a form of symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment, including on college and university campuses.

Court cases involving municipal signage:

  1. Reed v. Town of Gilbert (2015): This Supreme Court case involved a challenge to the town of Gilbert, Arizona’s sign code, which regulated the size, location, and duration of signs based on their content. The court held that the sign code was a content-based restriction on speech and therefore subject to strict scrutiny.
  2. City of Ladue v. Gilleo (1994): In this Supreme Court case, the court struck down a municipal ordinance that banned the display of signs on residential property, except for signs that fell within specific exemptions. The court held that the ban was an unconstitutional restriction on the freedom of speech.
  3. Metromedia, Inc. v. San Diego (1981): This Supreme Court case involved a challenge to a San Diego ordinance that banned off-premises advertising signs while allowing on-premises signs. The court held that the ordinance was an unconstitutional restriction on free speech, as it discriminated against certain types of speech.
  4. City of Ladue v. Center for the Study of Responsive Law, Inc. (1980): In this Supreme Court case, the court upheld a municipal ordinance that prohibited the display of signs on public property, but only if the signs were posted for longer than 10 days. The court held that the ordinance was a valid time, place, and manner restriction on speech.
  5. City of Boerne v. Flores (1997): This Supreme Court case involved a challenge to a municipal sign code that regulated the size, location, and content of signs in the city. The court held that the sign code violated the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, as it burdened the exercise of religion without a compelling government interest.

Winterwoche Woche 52 | 26. Dezember – 1. Januar

«Зимний день» 1934 Konstantin Gorbatov

Montag | 26. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Dienstag | 27. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Mittwoch | 28. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Donnerstag | 29. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC

FinTech 100

Freitag | 30. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Samstag | 31. Dezember

Sonntag | 1. Januar

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