**Q**uantum information science is a field of study that combines the principles of quantum mechanics and information theory to develop new methods for processing, storing, and transmitting information. It aims to use the unique properties of quantum systems, such as superposition and entanglement, to create more powerful and secure computing and communication technologies than are possible with classical systems.

**I**n quantum information science, information is represented using quantum bits, or qubits, which can exist in superposition states, allowing for simultaneous processing of multiple values. By entangling qubits, it is possible to perform operations on them collectively, leading to faster and more efficient computation.

**T**he field of quantum information science was founded in the 1980s and 1990s by a number of researchers who realized that the principles of quantum mechanics could be used to develop new methods for processing, transmitting, and securing information. Some of the key figures who are credited with founding the field of quantum information science include:

- Paul Benioff: In 1981, Benioff proposed the concept of a quantum computer, which would use quantum mechanics to perform calculations faster than a classical computer.
- Richard Feynman: In 1982, Feynman gave a lecture in which he proposed the idea of using quantum systems to simulate the behavior of other quantum systems, which later became known as quantum simulation.
- David Deutsch: In 1985, Deutsch proposed the concept of a quantum algorithm, which would use quantum mechanics to perform certain calculations exponentially faster than a classical computer.
- Peter Shor: In 1994, Shor developed a quantum algorithm for factoring large numbers, which demonstrated the potential of quantum computers to break certain encryption schemes and sparked a renewed interest in quantum information science.

These and other researchers made significant contributions to the development of quantum information science, and the field has since grown to encompass a wide range of topics, including quantum cryptography, quantum communication, and quantum sensing, among others.