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Electrical Safety in the Workplace

“Telegraph Poles with Buildings” | Joseph Stella (1917)

 

Optimal electrical safety and reliability is strongly correlated with electrical maintenance — i.e. functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastructure, and supporting utilities in industrial, business, governmental, and residential installations.  As our electrical systems have evolved, maintenance work has come to include various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational.  These activities take place either before or after a failure.  In either case, normal maintenance is “likely” to expose electrical workers to hazard.   The workplace is where maintenance occurs.

In electrical power systems, equipment and systems that control energy are designed to work, perhaps, only once or twice dependably in 25 to 50 years; if that.  Only safety-by-design and recommended maintenance can sustain the likelihood that safety and reliability expectations can be met.  Electrical maintenance usually involves exercising breakers, testing trip settings, confirming signaling paths in controls, software and the like.   Safety by design usually involves applying methods to minimize occupational hazards early in the design process, with an emphasis on optimizing employee health and safety throughout the life cycle of materials and processes.

There are several leading practice documents in this space; one of them IEEE 3007.2-2010 – Recommended Practice for the Maintenance of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems — and another — NFPA 70E Electrical Safety in the Workplace — a trademarked document.   NFPA 70E is the go-to document for workplace safety regulators; heavily referenced into Occupational Safety and Health Administration documents*.   While the most concentrated locus of electrical safety expertise lies with the IEEE, the IEEE Standards Association chooses not to trademark its consensus products because that would require turning over its intellectual property to the public where its products are incorporated by reference into public safety regulations.  The NFPA,  with solid revenue from the fire safety industry,  is tooled up better for recapturing the cost of developing the NFPA 70-suite; generally — and NFPA 70E in particular.

With this short lesson in consensus document production economics let us turn our attention to NFPA 70E.  We are now deep into its 3-year 2021 revision cycle.   From the NFPA 70E prospectus:

This standard addresses electrical safety-related work practices, safety-related maintenance requirements,   and   other   administrative   controls   for   employee workplaces that are necessary for the practical safeguarding of  employees  relative  to  the  hazards  associated  with  electrical  energy  during  activities  such  as  the  installation,  inspection, operation, maintenance, and demolition of electric conductors, electric equipment, signaling and communications  conductors  and  equipment,  and  raceways. This  standard  also  includes  safe  work  practices  for  employees  performing  other  work  activities  that  can  expose  them  to electrical  hazards  as  well  as  safe  work  practices  for  the following:

(1)  Installation of conductors and equipment that connect to the supply of electricity
(2)  Installations  used  by  the  electric  utility,  such  as  office buildings,  warehouses,  garages,  machine  shops,  and recreational buildings that are not an integral part of a
generating plant, substation, or control center.

Informational  Note:  This  standard  addresses  safety  of workers  whose  job  responsibilities  entail  interaction  with electrical equipment and systems with potential exposure to energized   electrical   equipment   and   circuit   parts.   Concepts  in  this  standard  are  often  adapted  to  other  workers whose exposure to electrical hazards is unintentional or not recognized as part of their job responsibilities. The highest risk  for  injury  from  electrical  hazards  for  other  workers involve  unintentional  contact  with  overhead  power  lines and electric shock from machines, tools, and appliances.

The Second Draft Committee meeting takes place July 16 – 18 at the Sheraton Indianapolis City Centre Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana.   When the Second Draft Report is released to the public on or before January 22, 2020 we will have an opportunity to respond through the NFPA NITMAM procedure by February 19, 2020.   While we are happy to discuss this and any other regulatory product any day during our daily 11 AM Eastern time teleconferences, we refer most of the technical specifics to the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets online in European and American time zones every two weeks.

 

Issue: [3-3], [18-135]

Category: Electrical

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Tammy Gammon, Jim Harvey, Joe Tedesco

*OSHA develops electrical safety documents of its own; the topic of a separate post since the jurisdictional politics are sensitive.  CLICK HERE for a preview.


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ARCHIVE: University of Michigan NFPA 70E Advocacy (2003-2016)

In 2003, the original University of Michigan codes and standards advocacy enterprise began submitting proposals to reduce electrical hazards dramatically by reducing the size of transformers and introducing series impedance elements to throttle fault current.   Over a decade later, we find that both of these concepts are tracking in NFPA and IEEE consensus documents.   Here are two videoclips from IEEE-TV in which experts discuss the technical specifics:

IEEE Discussion of NFPA Research Foundation “Rightsizing” Project

IEEE Discussion of a safer grounding regime at the University of California

Rightsizing Electrical Power Systems

Impedance Grounding Proposal Example

“Living with Arc-Flash Mitigation” | Anthony Parsons and Jonathan Gray, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, May/’June 2019

 

Campus Outdoor Lighting

“The Starry Night” | Vincent van Gogh

The IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee (IEEE E&H) is now writing a chapter on recommended practice for designing, building, operating and maintaining campus exterior lighting systems in the forthcoming IEEE 3001.9 Recommended Practice for the Design of Power Systems for Supplying Commercial and Industrial Lighting Systems; a new IEEE Standards Association product inspired by, and derived from, the legacy “IEEE Red Book“.  The entire IEEE Color Book suite is in the process of being sun-setted and replaced by the IEEE 3000 Standards Collection™  which offers faster-moving and more scaleable, guidance to campus power system designers.

Campus exterior lighting systems generally run in the 100 to 10,000 fixture range and are, arguably, the most visible characteristic of public safety infrastructure.   Some major research universities have exterior lighting systems that are larger and more complex than cooperative and municipal power company lighting systems which are regulated by public service commissions.

While there has been considerable expertise in developing illumination concepts by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Illumination Engineering Society, the American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers, the International Electrotechnical Commission and the International Commission on Illumination, none of them contribute to leading practice discovery for the actual power chain for these large scale systems on a college campus.   The standard of care has been borrowed, somewhat anecdotally, from public utility community lighting system practice.  These concepts need to be revisited as the emergent #SmartCampus takes shape.

The Industrial & Commercial Power Systems Department of IEEE is charged with writing all IEEE power system standards and coordinating their development with the Power Engineering Society and SCC-18 — the committee responsible for coordinating IEEE standards with NFPA standards.  IEEE 3001.9 will replace the lighting chapters the legacy IEEE Red Book.

Progress was made at the last Industrial Applications Society meeting in Portland in late September and that progress is being supported by monthly meetings.   Electrical power professionals who are experts in industrial and commercial lighting systems generally are are encouraged to communicate directly with Steven Townsend (steven.townsend@gm.com) or Pat Roder (p.roder@ieee.org) about participating in the development of IEEE 3001.9 generally or to coordinate their content with electrical professionals on the IEEE committees.  The committee made progress last week in Calgary.   Notification of the next monthly meeting time will be determined by Steven Townsend and will be announced here at Standards Michigan and on the IEEE organization calendar

Electrical power professionals who service the education and university-affiliated healthcare facility industry should communicate directly with Mike Anthony (maanthon@umich.edu) or Jim Harvey (jharvey@umich.edu).  This project is also on the standing agenda of the IEEE E&H committee which meets online 4 times monthly — every other Tuesday — in European and American time zones.  Login credentials are available on its draft agenda page.

Issue: [15-199]

Category: Electrical, Public Safety, Architectural, #SmartCampus, Space Planning, Risk Management

Contact: Mike Anthony, Kane Howard, Jim Harvey, Dev Paul, Steven Townsend, Kane Howard


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Designing Lighting for People and Buildings

“Electrical Building World’s Columbian Exposition Chicago 1892

The Illumination Engineering Society (IES)– one of the first names in standards-setting in illumination technology, globally* — has posted a public commenting opportunity on a revision to one of its core consensus products — IES LP-1 | LIGHT + DESIGN Lighting Practice: Designing Quality Lighting for People and Buildings.

From the statement placed in ANSI Standards Action:

“…Project Need: LIGHT + DESIGN was developed to introduce architects, lighting designers, design engineers, interior designers, and other lighting professionals to the principles of quality lighting design. These principles; related to visual performance, energy, and economics; and aesthetics; can be applied to a wide range of interior and exterior spaces to aid designers in providing high-quality lighting to their projects.

Stakeholders: Architects, interior designers, lighting practitioners, building owners/operators, engineers, the general public, luminaire manufacturers.  This standard focuses on design principles and defines key technical terms and includes technical background to aid understanding for the designer as well as the client about the quality of the lighted environment. Quality lighting enhances our ability to see and interpret the world around us, supporting our sense of well-being, and improving our capability to communicate with each other….”

Comments are due July 29th.

We encourage USER-INTERESTS in the education facilities industry — managers, shop foremen, front-line operations and maintenance personnel, design engineers and sustainability specialists who have operations and maintenance data; and workpoint understanding of #TotalCostofOwnership concepts — to participate in the IES standards development process, generally.  You obtain a review copy from, and submit your comments to Patricia McGillicuddy, (917) 913-0027, pmcgillicuddy@ies.org, 120 Wall Street, Floor 17, New York, NY 10005 (with a copy to psa@ansi.org)

The IES Standards Development home page is linked below:

IES Standards Open for Public Review

The complete IES consensus document library is linked below:

IES Lighting Library

The next IES Annual Conference will be hosted in Louisville, Kentucky and we encourage our colleagues in the education facilities industry in the Louisville region to attend:

IES Annual Conference | August 2019

The electrotechnical complexity of instructional spaces is gathering pace.  Standards Michigan hosts a monthly review of standards action on education industry arts and entertainment facilities which is open to everyone.  See our CALENDAR for the next teleconference.  Additionally, because the emergent #SmartCampus is essentially an electrotechnical transformation, we collaborate with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets online 4 times monthly in European and American time zones.

Issue: [Various}

Category: Electrical, Facility Asset Management

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey

Because illumination technology was the original (“killer”) application for electrical power, and continues to be a major component of electrical load, many competitors in standards setting have emerged.  To name a few: International Commission on Illumination, International Electrotechnical Commission and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.  In recent years the IES has partnered with the American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers to set standards for energy conservation in lighting systems.


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Classroom Acoustics

“Visit to the Classroom” | Charles Hunt (1859)

 

With acoustic considerations a technically subtle feature in many classes of education facilities — classrooms, lecture hall, performance arts and athletic venues, etc.  — we follow action in the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) suite of ANSI-accredited standards.

ASA Standards Homepage

For example, building codes in the United States identify horizontal and vertical acoustic insulation between floors and between walls, respectively, as design considerations.  Section 1206.2 of the International Building Code deal with  horizontal and vertical wall sealant applications for “airborne sound” mitigation, for example.   Fire protection and mass notification systems that depend upon alarms actually being heard by the occupants underscore the importance of acoustic design.

Now comes revisions to ASA’s Classroom Acoustic Standards; specifically:

ASA S12.60 | Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools

ASA S12.60 | Acoustic Standards for Physical Education Teaching Environments

These standards include acoustical performance criteria and design requirements for gymnasia and other physical education learning spaces. Annex A provides procedures for optional testing to determine conformance with the source background noise requirements and the reverberation time requirements of this standard. Annex B provides commentary information on various paragraphs of this standard. Annex C provides guidelines for controlling reverberation in gymnasia and other physical education spaces. Annex D provides guidelines for controlling background noise in gymnasia and other physical education spaces.

Comments are due July 22, 2019

You may obtain an electronic copy from Caryn Mennigke at ASA: (631) 390-0215, asastds@acousticalsociety.org.  Send your comments to Caryn with a copy to psa@ansi.org.

Carnegie Mellon College of Fine Arts

We are happy to walk through commenting opportunities on any consensus product any day at 11 AM Eastern time.  The ASA suite is also standing item on our monthly Arts & Entertainment Facility standards teleconference.  See our CALENDAR for the day of the next scheduled meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [19-140]

Category: Academics, Architectural, #SmartCampus

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Kristen Murphy

Source: ANSI Standards Action

 


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Archive: Posted December 12, 2018

 

With acoustic considerations in many classes of education facilities — classrooms, lecture hall, performance arts and athletic venues, etc.  — we follow action in the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) suite of ANSI-accredited standards.

ASA Standards Homepage

Building codes in the United States identify horizontal and vertical acoustic insulation between floors and between walls, respectively,  as design considerations.  Section 1206.2 of the International Building Code deal with  horizontal and vertical wall sealant applications for “airborne sound” mitigation, for example.

Now comes a revision to ASA’s Standard S12.2 Criteria for Evaluating Room Noise which provides three primary methods for evaluating room noise: a survey method that employs the following:

  • An A-weighted sound level;
  • An engineering method that employs expanded noise criteria (NC) curves;
  • A method for evaluating low-frequency fluctuating noise using room noise criterion (RNC) curves.

Comments are due January 28th.

You may obtain an electronic copy from Caryn Mennigke at ASA: (631) 390-0215, asastds@acousticalsociety.org.  Send your comments to Caryn with a copy to psa@ansi.org.

The ASA suite is a standing item on our monthly Arts & Entertainment Facility standards teleconference; the next scheduled for January 25th, 11 AM Eastern time.   You are welcomed to join us with the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.  For an advance agenda, please email bella@standardsmichigan.com

Issue: [19-4]

Category: Academics, Architectural, #SmartCampus

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Kristen Murphy

Source: ANSI Standards Action


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ARCHIVE: Posted December 12, 2018

With acoustic considerations in many classes of education facilities — classrooms, lecture hall, performance arts and athletic venues, etc.  — we follow action in the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) suite of ANSI-accredited standards.

ASA Standards Homepage

Building codes in the United States identify horizontal and vertical acoustic insulation between floors and between walls, respectively,  as design considerations.  Section 1206.2 of the International Building Code deal with  horizontal and vertical wall sealant applications for “airborne sound” mitigation, for example.  Two documents are of primary interest today.

ANSI/ASA S12.60-2010/Part 1 American National Standard Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools,  Part 1: Permanent Schools.

ANSI/ASA S12.60-2009/Part 2 American National Standard Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools,  Part 2: Relocatable Classroom Factors.

ASA also provides three informative booklets on classroom acoustics:

Classroom Acoustics – A resource for creating learning environments with desirable listening conditions

Classroom Acoustics II – Acoustical Barriers to Learning

Classroom Acoustics for Architects – A companion booklet for ANSI – S12.60

Both of these standards were re-affirmed in 2015 but, the ASA — like all ANSI accredited standards developers — administer technical committees that welcome data and recommendations at any time within the 5-year life cycle of an active standards.   At the moment we find that there are no open ballots.  We encourage stakeholders in the education facility industry to click in to the ASA Open Standards Committee Ballot Page for public commenting opportunities or communicate directly with the ASA standards staff at (631) 390-0215 or asastds@acousticalsociety.org.   

The ASA suite is a standing item on our monthly Arts & Entertainment standards teleconference; the next scheduled for December 18th, 11 AM Eastern time.   You are welcomed to join us with the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.  For an advance agenda, please email bella@standardsmichigan.com

 

Issue: [15-29]

Category: Academics, Architectural, #SmartCampus

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Kristen Murphy, Mojitaba Navvab

Source: ANSI Standards Action Announcement | PDF Page 3-4

City College of New York


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Room acoustic design, measurement, and simulation techniques to reduce hospital noises within patients’ environment | Mojtaba Navvab,  University of Michigan

Acoustical/Performance Criteria, Design Requirements, and Guidelines for Schools   International Code Council

ASTM Standard E90, 2009 (2016). Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Partitions and Elements

IEC TC 29 Electroacoustics

Building Automation & Control Networks

“Universal Exhibition at the Crystal Palace in London” | Thomas Abel Prior (1851)

The American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers (ASHRAE) has released three more candidate revisions to ASHRAE 135 Building Automation & Control Networks a standard that advances the #SmartCampus transformation in two important ways:

  • It defines data communication services and protocols for computer equipment used for monitoring and control of HVAC&R and other building systems
  • It defines an abstract, object-oriented representation of information communicated between such equipment, thereby facilitating the application and use of digital control technology in buildings.

Since the late 1970’s these systems have grown from single building control networks for environment air for a single building into multi-building, multi-vendor campus-wide systems that manage 100’s of thousands of control points that include control of access doors, elevators and exterior lighting.  They lie at the foundation of the emergent #SmartCampus which the leadership of the education industry likes to talk about but does nothing about except attend conferences.

In our view, the development of ASHRAE 135 is about as good as it gets for the USER-INTEREST to participate in consensus product development.

Each of these addenda offers insight into near-real-time evolution of campus building automation systems code that lies at the foundation of the emergent #SmartCampus

Addendum bj: The BACnet protocol stack as outlined in Clause 4 of the standard was defined before 1995, when the TCP/IP protocol suite was expensive and not available for smaller devices common in building automation. With today’s availability of IP network infrastructures for building automation that may be shared with other applications, and may be professionally managed by an IT department, there is a need for a more IT-friendly BACnet solutions that allows communicating BACnet across such infrastructures. This introduction first outlines current issues with BACnet in such environments and provides an overview of the solution proposed in this addendum.

Addendum by: Administrative changes that correlate with Addendum bj regarding BACNet security.

Addendum bz: Add Who-Am-I and You-Are Services

Comments are due August 5th.

You may comment directly on ASHRAE’s public commenting facilities, linked below:

ASHRAE Public Review Drafts Standards

We are happy to walk through the technical specifics of these addenda any day at 11 AM Eastern time.  Additionally, we follow standards action in all codes and standards that govern planning, design, construction. operation and maintenance of mechanical systems within buildings and between buildings and provide an overview every month.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [17-230]

Category: #SmartCampus, Electrical, Telecommunications, Mechanical, Energy, Facility Asset Management

Colleagues: David Conrad, Larry Spielvogel, Richard Robben


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ARCHIVE: ASHRAE 135 BUILDING AUTOMATION & CONTROL

 

 

Standards Colorado

As we explain in our ABOUT, we are continuing the development of the cadre of “code writers and vote-getters” begun at the University of Michigan in 1993.  We are now drilling down into state and local adaptations of nationally developed codes and standards that are incorporated by reference into public safety and sustainability legislation.

This post is a “test pancake” for generating discussion, and for developing a way forward for crafting state exceptions to nationally developed codes and standards.  Every state will have to be managed according to its history, culture, governance regime, asset-base and network of expertise.

Standards Michigan will remain the “free” home site but state-specific sites such as Standards Colorado will be accessible to user-interest code-writers and vote-getters.   Please send bella@standardsmichigan.com a request to join one of our mailing lists appropriate to your interest for #SmartCampus standards action in the State of Colorado.


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University of Colorado | University Enterprise Revenue | $200,000,000

University of Northern Colorado | Institutional Enterprise Revenue | $7,110,000

Weld County School District | General Obligation Bonds | $48,600,000

International Energy Conservation Code / Electrical Power

Electrical Building World’s Columbian Exposition | Chicago (1892)

The word “electrical” appears 163 times in the transcript of proposed changes to the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC); an accredited consensus document that is widely incorporated by reference into federal, state and local energy conservation legislation.   Today we continue our focus on proposals for the 2021 revision of the IECC that will affect the safety and sustainability agenda of the largest non-residential building construction market in the United States — the $300 billion US education facility industry. For perspective, even the larger college and research universities only have budgets in the $0.5 to $10 billion dollar range.

Since the emergent #SmartCampus is largely an electrotechnical transformation; and because much of the physical space will evolve with International Code Council consensus documents at its foundation, we continue allocating resources to understanding what incumbent stakeholders have proposed for the 2021 revision of the IECC; linked below.

2019 GROUP B PROPOSED CHANGES TO THE I-CODES ALBUQUERQUE COMMITTEE ACTION HEARINGS

Last month some of the electrical proposals were discussed at the IEEE Industrial & Commercial Department’s annual conference in Calagary, Canada.  Many of the proposals are coordination, harmonization and administrative provisions.  Some are not and will, wherever adopted, will change design, construction, operations, maintenance, training and conformity assessment for power systems in education and healthcare facilities.

The results of the Albuquerque Committee Action Hearings has been released in video format and now as a downloadable document linked below: (Search on the proposal number)

2019 REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ACTION HEARINGS ON THE 2018 EDITIONS OF THE GROUP B INTERNATIONAL CODES

We have until July 24th to respond with written comments.

A first reading of the unofficial results indicates that all of the proposals we marked for priority attention were accepted by the IECC-C  and IECC-R committee.   We will coordinate a user-interest response with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which will meet online several times ahead of the July 24th deadline.

The proposals that we marked several weeks ago for priority attention by education facility user interests are listed below:

CE108-19 | Data Centers

CE111-19*, et al | Fault Detection

CE113-19 | HVAC equipment

CE136-19 | Fan Nameplate Electrical Power & Fan Efficiency

CE166-19, et. al* | Occupancy Sensors

CE174-119, et. al*  | Lighting and Controls

CE212-19 | Elevator regenerative power & voltage drop (ON THE AGENDA OF THE MONTHLY ELEVATOR & ESCALATOR MEETING)

CE213-19 | Escalator & moving walk regenerative power (ON THE AGENDA OF THE MONTHLY ELEVATOR & ESCALATOR MEETING)

CE214-19 | Include customer-owned service conductors in the 5 percent voltage drop limit identified in the National Electrical Code

CE215-19*, et al | More electrical power monitoring hardware

CE216-19*. et al | More automatic receptacle control hardware

CE217-19 | Include electric vehicle charging fixtures in new construction

CE219-19 | Expansion of required energy efficiency requirements

CE224-19 | HVAC system electrical power efficiency requirements

CE237-19*. et al | More electrical power monitoring hardware

CE238-19 | Electrical Energy Storage Systems

CE261-19 | Change of occupancy energy use intensity

CE262-19 | Electrical energy storage system-ready area

CE263-19 Part I&II&III* | Required PV systems for all commercial buildings larger than 5000 square feet/community solar facilities

CE265-19 | Energy Storage Systems

Many large research universities have customer-owned power systems that supply average demand upwards of 100 megawatts daily.  We hope for informed, fair discussion.

* There are so many proposals for expansion of electrical control, monitoring and metering hardware that we identify only one of many conceptually related proposals here.   Refer to the standing agenda of the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee for additional technical specifics.

The next meeting of the ICC Group B Codes Committee will take place in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 20-23rd (CLICK HERE for more information).  We encourage our colleagues in the region to attend the conference.

University of Nevada Las Vegas

 

Issue: [16-169]

Category: Architectural, Facility Asset Management, Space Planning

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Scott Gibbs, Jim Harvey, Jose MeijerJoe Tedesco

#StandardsNewMexico


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ICC Group B Code Development Schedule

 

Building Electrical Wiring Based on Microsystem Criteria

Electrical Distribution Systems Based on Microsystem Criteria

Giuseppe Parise & Luigi Parise
Civil and Industrial Engineering Faculty, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
James R. Harvey & Michael A. Anthony
University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centers, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

 

This paper deals with an innovative design strategy of building power systems by introducing criteria based on both the “installation approach” and the “operating approach” applying plan-do-check-act (PDCA) cycle. The In-Op design of the electrical power systems takes care of the worst cases of configurations, adequate gaps on load in selecting the rating of components, the actual mean losses to evaluate their energetic operation, and to avoid excessive gaps on the lifetime of components. With this aim, the authors suggest consideration of the thermal aging model of Arrhenius to review the actual gap on load in selecting the rating of components. In reference to IEC standards, this paper underlines in the circuits design the cable steady and transient current densities, the load current torque density as “natural” parameters that allow applying a thumb rule in the classic sizing of the cross-sectional area of circuit conductors. Microsystem criteria in power systems design allow structuring their configuration with components of smaller size to reduce radically the volume of circuit conductors with more sensitive results in the branch distribution. The authors suggest why not reconsider the series of commercial cross section areas of power cables.

This paper was presented at the IEEE Industrial Applications Society meetings in 2015 and is now available in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications ( Volume: 54 , Issue: 1 , Jan.-Feb. 2018 ).    The authors revisit the first principles of conductor ampacities and conclude by asking a question: What Innovations Without Cultural Changes?

In the United States, and most of North America, the National Fire Protection Association has the largest platform, and the longest history in electrical power engineering for buildings.  In other words: the conversation about electrical safety within buildings is informed by the perspective of fire safety professionals.  In Europe, not so much.   The inspiration for European electrical safety is found in a shock protection.

The IEEE effectively ceded administration of building electrical safety to the NFPA and spent decades providing the platform for leading practice discovery for electrical power generation and distribution outside buildings — i.e. public utilities.  In retrospect this “division of labor” roughly follows the money flows to and from manufacturers and insurance companies.

The cultural question raised in the paper is reproduced, in part, below:

“…For an actual safety progress, a comparative analysis of international electrical approaches on distribution systems will facilitate an understanding of their similarities and differences and will promote the design of new equipment of high efficiency like AM Transformers and new integrated common solutions, like a new series of commercial cross section areas of the power cables efficient for reducing conductors volume in balance with the costs….”

The inquiry in this paper revisits specific terms in the Arrhenius Equation.

We collaborate closely with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets 4 times monthly in European and American time zones.  Risk managers, electrical safety inspectors, facility managers and others are welcomed to click into those teleconferences also.  We expect that concepts and recommendations this paper will find their way into future revisions of US and international electrical safety codes and standards.

Issue: [19-129]

Category: Electrical, Facility Asset Management, Fire Safety, International

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Christel Hunter, Giuseppe Parise, Luigi Parise

SOURCE:

The In-Op Design of Electrical Distribution Systems Based on Microsystem Criteria

 

 


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Copies of this publication may be ordered from:

customer-service@ieee.org

+1 800 678 IEEE (+1 800 678 4333)

Service requirements for distance learning

Hans Christian Ørsted discovers electromagnetism / Københavns Universitet

We followd the gathering pace of international distance learning enterprises with particular interest in its technical foundation for quality and availability.   International Telecommunication Union Recommendation F.742 provides the service description and the requirements for distance learning services. This Recommendation is intended to support the multimedia framework for distance learning services.  From the project description:

“…Distance learning involves interactive and non-interactive multimedia communications between learners and learning resources located at two or more separate locations. The aims of learners who use distance learning services may be to get some degree certificates based on the degree standards, to get training given by employers, or to learn special knowledge independently. The distance learning services may be teaching-centred learning services that are similar to traditional face-to-face classroom learning, individual instruction, self-pacing learning, multi-role learning/team learning, etc.

In the course of distance learning, information may be required from remote databases containing the learning resources, or from live lectures. The material may be textual, aural, graphical, or video in nature and may be stored in a multimedia format. The information can be delivered in point-to-point configuration, point-to-multipoint or multipoint-to-multipoint configuration.
Participants in the distance learning may be located in classrooms equipped with related facilities, offices, homes or other places, such as on trains, where they are able to access to a distance learning services platform. Learners may learn in real-time with or without interaction with others, following a curriculum schedule or in non-real-time by themselves on demand. The equipment that learners use may be a PC, PDA, mobile phone, or even a TV set with STU. Learners can change their equipment without interruption while they are learning, with the assistance of a DLSP…”

Note that the last revision became effective in 2005; and was re-affirmed in 2008.  Other ITU documents relevant to the education industry can be found on the page linked below:

ITU-T Recommendations

We normally coordinate our engagement with ITU standards with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets four times monthly in European and American time zones.  We discuss any consensus product that affects the education industry every day at 11 AM Eastern time.  We also host a monthly teleconference on telecommunication standards.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [8-8]

Category: Academics, Electrical, Information and Communication Technology, Telecommunications

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Mike Hiler

 


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Medical Practice Electrical equipment

“The Agnew Clinic” | Thomas Eakins (1889)

One of the subcommittees of International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 62 (IEC TC/62) has released a number of redlines that are now open for public review.   University affiliated medical research and healthcare delivery enterprises are large stakeholders in this space.

The scope of IEC TC/62 and a link to the subcommittee home page is listed below:

Scope: To prepare international standards and other publications concerning electrical equipment, electrical systems and software used in healthcare and their effects on patients, operators, other persons and the environment. NOTE : This scope includes items that are also within the scopes of other committees and will be addressed through cooperation. Attention will focus on safety and performance (e.g. radiation protection, data security, data integrity, data privacy and environmental aspects) and will contribute to regulatory frameworks. Healthcare includes medical practice as well as emergency medical services, homecare, and support of persons with disabilities in their daily lives (i.e. Ambient Assisted Living).

SC 62A Common aspects of electrical equipment used in medical practice

The redlines are listed in the link below:

IEC TC 62 Electrical equipment used in medical practice | Comments due July 16th

Cardiac surgical procedure at Gemelli Hospital in Rome

It is our custom to collaborate with the US National Committee to the International Electrotechnical Commission (USNA/IEC) primarily, though we have significant professional relationships with academic scholars in other nations through the IEEE Standards Association and the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee IEEE E&H).  We are happy to discuss any consensus product, any day at 11 AM Eastern time, however the expertise for responding to invitations for public comment like this is usually present during the IEEE E&H Committee meetings which take place four times monthly in European and American time zones.

Issue: [11-66]

Category: Electrical, Healthcare Facilities, International

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Giuseppe Parise, Luigi Parise, Massimo Mitolo


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