Tag Archives: D1


Health 400 | OB-GYN

Today we break down regulations, codes, standards and open-source literature governing the safety and sustainability of university-affiliated medical research and healthcare delivery facilities.  Because of the complexity of the topic we break down our coverage:

Health 200.   Survey of all relevant codes, standards, guidelines and recommended practices for healthcare settings.

Health 400.  All of the above with special consideration needed for obstetrics, gynecological and neonatal clinical practice and research.

Today we confine our interest to systems — water, power, telecommunication and security; for example — that are unique to campus-configured, city-within-city risk aggregations.  Electrotechnologies (voltage stability, static electricity control, radio-interference, etc.) in these enterprises are subtle, complex and high risk.  Sample titles from legacy best practice literature in this domain are listed below:

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Levels of Maternal Care

Provision of Care, Treatment, and Services standards for maternal safety

Since our interest lies in the habitable spaces for these enterprises we usually start with a scan of the following titles:

International Building Code Section 407 (Institutional Group I-2) identifies requirements specific to healthcare settings, covering aspects such as fire safety, means of egress, and smoke compartments. Maternity and obstetric facilities within hospitals fall under this classification.

K-TAG Matrix for Healthcare Facilities

NFPA 70 National Electrical Code Article 517

NFPA 99 Healthcare Facilities Code

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Chapters 18 & 19

ASHRAE 170 Ventilation of Healthcare Facilities

ASHRAE 189.3: Design, Construction and Operation of Sustainable High Performance Health Care Facilities

Relevant Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers research

Towards Deeper Neural Networks for Neonatal Seizure Detection

A System to Provide Primary Maternity Healthcare Services in Developing Countries

Deep Learning for Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring in Labor

Reorganizing of University Hospital of Oran’s operating theatre: Simulation approach

Finally, we collaborate with the IEEE E&H Committee on the following IEC committee projects from IEC/TC 62 Electrical equipment in medical practice:

– Common aspects of electrical equipment used in diagnostic imaging equipment

– Equipment for radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation dosimetry

– Electromedical equipment for neonatal care



Journal of Healthcare Management Standards: Operational Resilience of Hospital Power Systems in the Digital Age

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

Health care cost as percentage of Gross Domestic Product for six representative nations.

Association of Academic Health Centers

International Conference on Harmonization: The ICH guidelines provide guidance on the development of pharmaceuticals and related substances, including clinical trials, drug safety, and efficacy.

Animal Welfare Act and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

Good Laboratory Practice: GLP is a set of principles that ensure the quality and integrity of non-clinical laboratory studies. It ensures that data generated from non-clinical laboratory studies are reliable, valid, and accurate.

International Code Council Representation of Interests

University of Chicago

Children’s Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care

Some of the common electro-technologies used in a neonatal care unit include:

  • Incubators: These temperature-controlled units create a controlled environment to keep premature or sick infants warm and protected.
  • Ventilators: Mechanical ventilators assist newborns with respiratory distress by delivering oxygen and helping them breathe.
  • Monitors: These devices track vital signs such as heart rate, oxygen levels, blood pressure, and temperature to ensure the baby’s health and detect any abnormalities.
  • Phototherapy Lights: Special lights are used to treat jaundice in newborns, helping to break down excess bilirubin in the blood.
  • Intravenous (IV) Pumps: These pumps are used to deliver medications, fluids, and nutrients directly into the baby’s bloodstream.
  • Feeding Tubes: For infants who are unable to feed orally, feeding tubes are used to deliver breast milk or formula directly into their stomach.
  • Blood Gas Analyzers: These machines measure the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in a baby’s blood to monitor respiratory status and acid-base balance.
  • Infusion Pumps: Used to administer controlled amounts of fluids, medications, or nutrients to newborns.
  • CPAP/BiPAP Machines: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) machines help newborns with breathing difficulties by providing a continuous flow of air pressure.
  • Neonatal Resuscitation Equipment: This includes equipment such as resuscitation bags, endotracheal tubes, laryngoscopes, and suction devices used during emergency situations to assist with newborn resuscitation.

It’s important to note that specific tools and equipment may vary depending on the level of neonatal care provided by the unit, the needs of the infants, and the policies of the healthcare facility.

Neonatal care, as a specialized field, has been shaped by the contributions of several pioneers in medicine. Here are a few notable figures who have made significant advancements in neonatal care:

  • Dr. Virginia Apgar was an American obstetrical anesthesiologist who developed the Apgar score in 1952. The Apgar score is a quick assessment tool used to evaluate the overall health of newborns immediately after birth. It assesses the baby’s heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color, providing valuable information for prompt intervention and monitoring.
  • Dr. Martin Couney, a pioneering physician, established incubator exhibits at world fairs and amusement parks in the early 20th century. He promoted the use of incubators to care for premature infants and played a significant role in popularizing the concept of neonatal intensive care.
  • Dr. Virginia A. Apgar, an American pediatrician and neonatologist, made significant contributions to the field of neonatology. She specialized in the care of premature infants and conducted extensive research on neonatal resuscitation and newborn health. She also developed the Apgar scoring system, although unrelated to Dr. Virginia Apgar mentioned earlier.
  • Dr. Lula O. Lubchenco was an influential researcher and neonatologist who made important contributions to the understanding of newborn growth and development. She developed the Lubchenco Growth Chart, which provides a standardized assessment of a newborn’s size and gestational age, aiding in the identification and monitoring of growth abnormalities.
  • Dr. Mary Ellen Avery was a renowned American pediatrician and researcher whose work focused on understanding and treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. She identified the importance of surfactant deficiency in RDS and contributed to the development of surfactant replacement therapy, revolutionizing the care of preterm infants.

These individuals, among many others, have played pivotal roles in advancing the field of neonatal care, improving the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and overall outcomes for newborn infants.

Healthcare Facilities Code

IEEE  Education & Healthcare Facility Electrotechnology


Rooibos Tea

Rooibos tea, also known as red bush tea, is a popular herbal tea that is native to South Africa. It is made from the leaves of the Aspalathus linearis plant, which is found only in the Western Cape region of South Africa.

The plant grows in a microclimate where it is exposed to a combination of hot, dry summers and cold, wet winters, which gives it its distinctive flavor and aroma.  It is used in cooking and baking, and can be found in a variety of products, including desserts, skincare products, and even beer.

EU protection for Rooibos tea is good news for South African agriculture


Education Community Finance

Giovanni Paolo Panini, An architectural capriccio with figures among Roman ruins

The post-pandemic #WiseCampus transformation requires significant capital to meet the sustainability goals of its leadership.  Campuses are cities-within-cities and are, to a fair degree, financed in a similar fashion.  Tax-free bonds are an effective instrument for school districts, colleges and universities — and the host community in which they are nested — for raising capital for infrastructure projects while also providing investors with, say $10,000 to $100,000, to allocate toward a tax-free dividend income stream that produces a return in the range of 2 to 8 percent annually.

An aging population may be receptive to investment opportunities that protect their retirement savings from taxation.

Once a month, we walk through the prospectuses of one or two bond offerings of school districts, colleges and universities and examine offering specifics regarding infrastructure construction, operations and maintenance.  We pay particular attention to details regarding “continuing operations”. Somehow the education industry has to pay for its green agenda.  See our CALENDAR for the next Finance colloquium; open to everyone.

The interactive map provided by Electronic Municipal Market Access identifies state-by-state listings of tax-free bonds that contribute to the construction and operation of education facilities; some of which involved university-affiliated medical research and healthcare delivery enterprises.



If you need help cutting through this list please feel free to click in any day at 11 AM Eastern time.  Use the login credentials at the upper right of our hope page.  We collaborate with subject matter experts at Municipal Analytics and UBS.

Issue: [Various]

Category: Administration & Management, Finance, #SmartCampus

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, John Kaczor, Liberty Ziegahn

*We see the pandemic as a driver for a step-reduction in cost in all dimensions of education communities.  We coined the term with a hashtag about two years ago.

*College and university infrastructure projects are classified with public school districts under the rubric “municipal bonds” at the moment.  CLICK HERE for more information.



Duke Law Review:  Don’t ‘Screw Joe the Plummer’: The Sausage-Making of Financial Reform

An Expanded Study of School Bond Elections in Michigan

Rightsizing Electrical Power Systems

Standards Michigan, spun-off in 2016 from the original University of Michigan Business & Finance Operation, has peppered NFPA 70 technical committees writing the 2016-2026 National Electric Code with proposals to reduce the size of building premise feeder infrastructure; accommodating the improvements made in illumination and rotating machinery energy conservation since the 1980’s (variable frequency drives, LED lighting, controls, etc.)

These proposals are routinely voted down in 12-20 member committees representing manufacturers (primarily) though local inspection authorities are complicit in overbuilding electric services because they “bill by the service panel ampere rating”.  In other words, when a municipality can charge a higher inspection fee for a 1200 ampere panel, what incentive is there to support changes to the NEC that takes that inspection fee down to 400 amperes?

The energy conservation that would result from the acceptance of our proposals into the NEC are related to the following: reduced step down transformer sizes, reduced wire and conduit sizes, reduced panelboard sizes, reduced electric room cooling systems — including the HVAC cooling systems and the ceiling plenum sheet metal carrying the waste heat away.   Up to 20 percent energy savings is in play here and all the experts around the table know it.   So much for the economic footprint of the largest non-residential building construction market in the United States — about $120 billion annually.

The market incumbents are complicit in ignoring energy conservation opportunity.  To paraphrase one of Mike Anthony’s colleagues representing electrical equipment manufacturers:

“You’re right Mike, but I am getting paid to vote against you.”

NFPA Electrical Division knows it, too.

University of Michigan


Rightsizing Commercial Electrical Power Systems: Review of a New Exception in NEC Section 220.12

Michael A. AnthonyJames R. Harvey

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Thomas L. Harman

University of Houston, Clear Lake, Texas

For decades, application of National Electrical Code (NEC) rules for sizing services, feeders and branch circuits has resulted in unused capacity in almost all occupancy classes. US Department of Energy data compiled in 1999 indicates average load on building transformers between 10 and 25 percent. More recent data gathered by the educational facilities industry has verified this claim. Recognizing that aggressive energy codes are driving energy consumption lower, and that larger than necessary transformers create larger than necessary flash hazard, the 2014 NEC will provide an exception in Section 220.12 that will permit designers to reduce transformer kVA ratings and all related components of the power delivery system. This is a conservative, incremental step in the direction of reduced load density that is limited to lighting systems. More study of feeder and branch circuit loading is necessary to inform discussion about circuit design methods in future revisions of the NEC.

CLICK HERE for complete paper

University of Houston

2026 National Electrical Code Workspace

Qualification Standard for Power Plant Operators

EPRI is an independent, nonprofit organization that is primarily funded by its member utilities. These member utilities are typically electric power companies, and they contribute financially to EPRI to support its research and development activities.

While EPRI is not directly funded by the government, it does collaborate with various government agencies on research projects and receives funding for specific initiatives through government grants and contracts. Additionally, some of EPRI’s research and development efforts align with government priorities in areas such as renewable energy, environmental sustainability, and grid modernization.

Qualification Standard for Power Plant Operators

EPRI 2024 Research Portfolio: Building on Success to Drive Progress

Electrical inspectors (See NFPA 1078) typically do not have jurisdiction over electrical power plants. Electrical power plants, especially large-scale utility power plants, are subject to much more stringent regulations and oversight than regular electrical installations. The responsibility for inspecting and ensuring the safety and compliance of power plants falls under various government agencies and organizations.

In the United States, for example, power plants are subject to federal regulations set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for nuclear power plants or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fossil fuel power plants. Additionally, state regulatory agencies and utility commissions may have their own specific requirements and oversight for power plants within their jurisdictions.

Power plants typically undergo rigorous inspections and audits to ensure compliance with safety, environmental, and operational standards. These inspections are conducted by specialized teams of engineers, experts, and representatives from relevant regulatory bodies and utilities.

While electrical inspectors may not have jurisdiction over power plants, they play a crucial role in inspecting and ensuring the safety of electrical installations in other settings, such as smaller power generation facilities (i.e. district energy plants) that are not exempted by self-assessment charters granted to many large university power plants.

Gallery: School, College & University Electric Systems


Human Resources 300

Office in a Small City 1953 Edward Hopper


“Choose a job you love,

and you will never have to work a day in your life.”

Kong Fuzi, Confucius


Today we dwell on titles that inform management of the education industry in the United States specifically; but also more generally in global markets where the education industry is classified as a Producer and a User of human resources.  It is an enormous domain; likely the largest.

Human Resources 100 covers skilled trade training in all building construction disciplines.

Human Resources 200 covers the range of skills needed to manage an educational setting — school districts, colleges and universities

Human Resources 300 covers higher level management of these settings.  (Representative Organization Charts)

Estate Services | University of Oxford

Harvard University Finance Administration

Human Resources 500 covers everything else

Human Resources 500

Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Engineering a Fair Future: Why we need to train unbiased AI

Recommended Reading:

On the Origin of Species | Charles Darwin

“The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life | Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray

“The Human Side of Enterprise” 1960 by Douglas McGregor | MIT Management Sloan School

University of Chicago Press: Readings in Managerial Psychology




Lee Webster

Virginia Commonwealth University: “Self Reliance” Ralph Waldo Emerson

Paris Review: The Myth of Self-Reliance

Using ANSI Human Resource Standards to Create Business Advantage in the Workplace

Colleges and Organizational Structure of Universities

Apprenticeships: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

“Google’s Ideological Echo Chamber” James Damore



Animals 300

“The Peaceable Kingdom” 1833 Edward Hicks

Today we scan the status of literature that informs the safety and sustainability of the built environment for animals large and small.  Animals are found in education communities as pets. sporting partners, agricultural research and teaching settings, as medical research subjects and clinical care facilities.  ANSI-Accredited standards developers with a footprint in this domain are listed below:

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers


ASHRAE International

Plant and Animal Environment

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

Animal Kingdom: A Large and Diverse Dataset for Animal Behavior Understanding

International Code Council

Form v. Function | Function v. Form

National Fire Protection Association

Animal Safety

Underwriters Laboratories

Government agencies at all levels borrow from best practice recommendations in the catalog of the foregoing standards developers.  Conversely, those same standards developers borrow from the best practice recommendations from the same government agencies.

Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Sunday, Animal, Farm, Agri


The Ethics of Farming Animals

Animal Welfare Act

National Research Council: Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals

National Library of Medicine: Regulation of Animal Research

Most education communities use the foregoing regulations upon which to build their own standards.  For example:

George Washington University

Stanford University

University of Michigan

Michigan State University


Terrestrial Animal Health Code


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