Tag Archives: D1


Early Childhood Development Centers

The University of Notre Dame and St. Mary’s plan construction next year on a new on-site facility to provide child care for faculty, staff and students with children between the ages of 6 weeks and 3 years old.  Growing out of the recommendations of a faculty and staff committee charged with looking at child care assistance opportunities, the new facility will open in summer 2025 and be operated by KinderCare, the nation’s largest child care and early education provider.

The center will be located on the north edge of campus near White Field, adjacent to Beichner Hall and The Landings at Notre Dame apartments.

The Early Childhood Development Centers at Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s College will continue to offer early childhood programs for children age 2 through kindergarten and will work in collaboration with KinderCare.

“We welcome KinderCare to the Notre Dame campus. Infant care is greatly needed in our community, and we are pleased that the University continues to support families’ needs for quality early childhood care and education. We look forward to continuing our mission to provide the community with high-quality accredited preschool and kindergarten programs at our two ECDC campus sites,”

— Kari Alford, Executive Director.

Standards Indiana

The De-Population Bomb

Health 400 | OB-GYN

Today we break down regulations, codes, standards and open-source literature governing the safety and sustainability of university-affiliated medical research and healthcare delivery facilities.  Because of the complexity of the topic we break down our coverage:

Health 200.   Survey of all relevant codes, standards, guidelines and recommended practices for healthcare settings.

Health 400.  All of the above with special consideration needed for obstetrics, gynecological and neonatal clinical practice and research.

Today we confine our interest to systems — water, power, telecommunication and security; for example — that are unique to campus-configured, city-within-city risk aggregations.  Electrotechnologies (voltage stability, static electricity control, radio-interference, etc.) in these enterprises are subtle, complex and high risk.  Sample titles from legacy best practice literature in this domain are listed below:

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Levels of Maternal Care

Provision of Care, Treatment, and Services standards for maternal safety

Since our interest lies in the habitable spaces for these enterprises we usually start with a scan of the following titles:

International Building Code (with particular interest in Section 308 Institutional Group I)

K-TAG Matrix for Healthcare Facilities

NFPA 70 National Electrical Code Article 517

NFPA 99 Healthcare Facilities Code

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Chapters 18 & 19

ASHRAE 170 Ventilation of Healthcare Facilities

ASHRAE 189.3: Design, Construction and Operation of Sustainable High Performance Health Care Facilities

Relevant Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers research

Towards Deeper Neural Networks for Neonatal Seizure Detection

A System to Provide Primary Maternity Healthcare Services in Developing Countries

Deep Learning for Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring in Labor

Reorganizing of University Hospital of Oran’s operating theatre: Simulation approach

Finally, we collaborate with the IEEE E&H Committee on the following IEC committee projects from IEC/TC 62 Electrical equipment in medical practice:

– Common aspects of electrical equipment used in diagnostic imaging equipment

– Equipment for radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation dosimetry

– Electromedical equipment for neonatal care



Journal of Healthcare Management Standards: Operational Resilience of Hospital Power Systems in the Digital Age

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

Health care cost as percentage of Gross Domestic Product for six representative nations.

Association of Academic Health Centers

International Conference on Harmonization: The ICH guidelines provide guidance on the development of pharmaceuticals and related substances, including clinical trials, drug safety, and efficacy.

Animal Welfare Act and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee

Good Laboratory Practice: GLP is a set of principles that ensure the quality and integrity of non-clinical laboratory studies. It ensures that data generated from non-clinical laboratory studies are reliable, valid, and accurate.

International Code Council Representation of Interests

University of Chicago

Children’s Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care

Some of the common electro-technologies used in a neonatal care unit include:

  • Incubators: These temperature-controlled units create a controlled environment to keep premature or sick infants warm and protected.
  • Ventilators: Mechanical ventilators assist newborns with respiratory distress by delivering oxygen and helping them breathe.
  • Monitors: These devices track vital signs such as heart rate, oxygen levels, blood pressure, and temperature to ensure the baby’s health and detect any abnormalities.
  • Phototherapy Lights: Special lights are used to treat jaundice in newborns, helping to break down excess bilirubin in the blood.
  • Intravenous (IV) Pumps: These pumps are used to deliver medications, fluids, and nutrients directly into the baby’s bloodstream.
  • Feeding Tubes: For infants who are unable to feed orally, feeding tubes are used to deliver breast milk or formula directly into their stomach.
  • Blood Gas Analyzers: These machines measure the levels of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in a baby’s blood to monitor respiratory status and acid-base balance.
  • Infusion Pumps: Used to administer controlled amounts of fluids, medications, or nutrients to newborns.
  • CPAP/BiPAP Machines: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) machines help newborns with breathing difficulties by providing a continuous flow of air pressure.
  • Neonatal Resuscitation Equipment: This includes equipment such as resuscitation bags, endotracheal tubes, laryngoscopes, and suction devices used during emergency situations to assist with newborn resuscitation.

It’s important to note that specific tools and equipment may vary depending on the level of neonatal care provided by the unit, the needs of the infants, and the policies of the healthcare facility.

Neonatal care, as a specialized field, has been shaped by the contributions of several pioneers in medicine. Here are a few notable figures who have made significant advancements in neonatal care:

  • Dr. Virginia Apgar was an American obstetrical anesthesiologist who developed the Apgar score in 1952. The Apgar score is a quick assessment tool used to evaluate the overall health of newborns immediately after birth. It assesses the baby’s heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color, providing valuable information for prompt intervention and monitoring.
  • Dr. Martin Couney, a pioneering physician, established incubator exhibits at world fairs and amusement parks in the early 20th century. He promoted the use of incubators to care for premature infants and played a significant role in popularizing the concept of neonatal intensive care.
  • Dr. Virginia A. Apgar, an American pediatrician and neonatologist, made significant contributions to the field of neonatology. She specialized in the care of premature infants and conducted extensive research on neonatal resuscitation and newborn health. She also developed the Apgar scoring system, although unrelated to Dr. Virginia Apgar mentioned earlier.
  • Dr. Lula O. Lubchenco was an influential researcher and neonatologist who made important contributions to the understanding of newborn growth and development. She developed the Lubchenco Growth Chart, which provides a standardized assessment of a newborn’s size and gestational age, aiding in the identification and monitoring of growth abnormalities.
  • Dr. Mary Ellen Avery was a renowned American pediatrician and researcher whose work focused on understanding and treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. She identified the importance of surfactant deficiency in RDS and contributed to the development of surfactant replacement therapy, revolutionizing the care of preterm infants.

These individuals, among many others, have played pivotal roles in advancing the field of neonatal care, improving the understanding, diagnosis, treatment, and overall outcomes for newborn infants.

Healthcare Facilities Code

IEEE  Education & Healthcare Facility Electrotechnology


Human Resources 200

United States Occupational Safety & Health Administration

Regulations.GOV Open for Comment

“Choose a job you love,

and you will never have to work a day in your life.”

Kong Fuzi, Confucius


Today we dwell on titles that inform management of the education industry in the United States specifically; but also more generally in global markets where the education industry is classified as a Producer and a User of human resources.  It is an enormous domain; likely the largest.

Human Resources 100 covers skilled trade training in all building construction disciplines.

Human Resources 200 covers the range of skills needed to manage an educational setting — school districts, colleges and universities

Human Resources 300 covers higher level management of these settings.  (Representative Organization Charts)

Human Resources 500 covers everything else

Human Resources 500

Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Engineering a Fair Future: Why we need to train unbiased AI

Recommended Reading:

“The Human Side of Enterprise” 1960 by Douglas McGregor | MIT Management Sloan School

University of Chicago Press: Readings in Managerial Psychology

Columbia University: Cloward–Piven Strategy

Malcolm Gladwell’s book “Outliers: The Story of Success” explores the factors that contribute to high levels of success and achievement. The concept of the “10,000-hour rule” is one of the key ideas presented in the book.

The 10,000-hour rule suggests that it takes approximately 10,000 hours of dedicated practice to achieve mastery in a particular field. Gladwell draws on the research of psychologist K. Anders Ericsson, who studied the practice habits of experts in various domains. The book examines examples of successful individuals, such as Bill Gates, The Beatles, and elite athletes, to illustrate how their commitment to extensive practice played a crucial role in their extraordinary accomplishments.

While Gladwell popularized the 10,000-hour rule, it’s important to note that the concept has faced criticism. Some argue that the amount of practice required for expertise can vary depending on the field, the individual, and other factors. Nevertheless, “Outliers” encourages readers to consider the importance of effort, opportunity, and cultural factors in the development of success. The book goes beyond individual talent and emphasizes the role of external influences and circumstances in shaping exceptional achievement.




Lee Webster

Virginia Commonwealth University: “Self Reliance” Ralph Waldo Emerson

Paris Review: The Myth of Self-Reliance

Using ANSI Human Resource Standards to Create Business Advantage in the Workplace

Colleges and Organizational Structure of Universities

Apprenticeships: International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

“Google’s Ideological Echo Chamber” James Damore



Electrical Inspector Professional Qualifications

Electrical Training

Compact Muon Solenoid / European Organization for Nuclear Research

NFPA 1078 Standard for Electrical Inspector Professional Qualifications identifies the minimum job performance requirements for electrical inspectors.   Qualifications for electrical inspectors are heavily regulated by state public safety agencies.   Many, if not most electrical inspectors are former electricians.   This means that part of their career has been spent working as an  Labor/Installer/Maintenance stakeholder, and another part of their career has been spend as an Enforcement stakeholder.  (See NFPA Classification of Committee Members).   This can be a sensitive condition in large research universities that have a resident full-time enforcement staff ; the subject of a separate post.

Free access to the current 2024 edition is linked below:

NFPA 1078 2024 Free Access

The 2028 revision is now open for public input.  It is always enlightening to follow the transcripts of the previous revision cycles to see what ideas have been in play.

Public Input Report

Electrical Inspection Practices (EEP-AAA)

Professional Qualifications (PQU-AAC)


Public input on the 2028 revision will be received until June 4, 2025

We have found that passions are elevated among stakeholders whenever compliance and conformance revenue is involved — i.e. in any consensus product that covers labor (i.e. billable hours).

We include this standard on the standing agenda of our monthly Human Resource, Power and Infotech teleconferences.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.







Certifying the Certifiers

Accreditation and certification are relatively modern concepts that have evolved over time as formalized methods of establishing and maintaining standards in various fields. The concept of accreditation or certification, as it is understood today, may not have existed in the same form in the distant past. However, there were likely individuals or groups who played roles similar to that of accreditation or certification specialists in history, although the formalized systems of accreditation or certification that exist today were not present.

For example, in ancient times, there were guilds and associations in various professions that set standards for their members, oversaw training and apprenticeship programs, and ensured the quality of their work. These guilds and associations, which existed in various civilizations such as ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome, could be seen as early forms of accreditation or certification bodies.

Similarly, in religious contexts, there were individuals who held authority to certify or accredit others. For instance, in medieval Europe, there were religious orders, such as the Knights Templar, who were known for their specialized skills and were often called upon to certify the expertise of others in their areas of knowledge, such as architecture or finance.

In the field of education, ancient universities and centers of learning, such as the ancient Indian Nalanda University or the Islamic madrasas, could also be seen as early forms of accreditation or certification bodies, where scholars were recognized and certified based on their knowledge and expertise.

However, it’s important to note that the formalized systems of accreditation or certification that we are familiar with today, with standardized processes, documentation, and oversight, have developed over time and are relatively modern phenomena. The history of accreditation or certification is complex and multifaceted, with various practices and traditions that have evolved and influenced the modern systems we have today.

Accreditation 100

“I have no special talent.
I am only passionately curious”
— Albert Einstein

Early 20th-century fresco depicting guilds in the 13th-century New Tower of Sélestat

Standards are the seed corn for compliance revenue; hence the hegemony of conformance and enforcement enterprises that dominate the global standards system.

Accreditation is a relatively recent breakout topic so we approach it gently; respectful of the business models of the hundreds of education community charitable associations involved in the safety and sustainability of the physical spaces of education communities.

Accreditation 100 tracks facility management credentialing:

Ferris State University | Certificate Program in Facility Management

University of San Diego | Facilities Management Program

Arizona State University | Facility Management Certificate Program

Later in 2024 we will sort through other issues in the credentialing domain:

Accreditation 200: Recent innovations in credentialing

Accreditation 300: Requirements for baccalaureate, masters and doctoral degrees

Accreditation 400: Advanced Topics

Open to everyone.  Use the login credentials at the top of our home page.

Syllabus: Accreditation 100


“Student Retention at the Community College: Meeting Students’ Needs” | University of Delware Fall 2006 | Jill Jacobs-Biden

“Princeton-Educated Black and the Black Community” | Princeton University | Michelle LaVaughn Robinson

“Employment, Output and Capital Accumulation in an Open Economy: A Disequilibrium Approach” | Yale University | Janet Louise Yellen


Intelligence is quickness in seeing things as they are. - George Santayana

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