Tag Archives: D1


Intellectual Property

It is impossible to overestimate the sensitivity of this topic but poke at it, we will.  At the moment, the less written here; the better.   Much of this domain is outside our wheelhouse; though it has settled on a few first principles regarding patents, trademarks and copyrights relevant to the user-interest we describe in our ABOUT.

Many large research universities have a watchdog guarding its intellectual property and trying to generate income from it, and; of course, for branding.  We will dwell on salient characteristics of the intellectual property domain with which we reckon daily — highlighting the market actors and the standards they have agreed upon.

Additionally, technical standards developers are generally protected by copyright law, as the standards they create are typically considered original works of authorship that are subject to copyright protection.  In the United States, the Copyright Act of 1976 provides copyright protection for original works of authorship, which includes technical standards. This means that the developers of technical standards have the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, and create derivative works based on their standards, and others must obtain permission or a license to use or reproduce the standards.  

Some technical standards may be subject to certain exemptions or limitations under copyright law.  In the United States, there is a doctrine called “fair use” that allows for limited use of copyrighted works for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research, without the need for permission or a license from the copyright owner.  Almost everything we do at Standards Michigan falls under the fair use doctrine.  This is why we have no search feature and most pages are protected.  If we err in this; let us know.  

Innovation management


  1. Patent Act: This is the primary federal law governing patents in the United States. It sets forth the requirements for obtaining a patent, the rights of patent owners, and the remedies available for infringement.
  2. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 and the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 prohibit anticompetitive behavior in the marketplace, including the use of codes and standards to exclude competition.
  3. Title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations: This contains the rules and procedures related to patents, including rules governing the filing and examination of patent applications.
  4. America Invents Act: This is a major overhaul of the U.S. patent system that was enacted in 2011. It includes provisions such as the transition to a “first-inventor-to-file” system and the creation of new post-grant review procedures for challenging the validity of patents.
  5. Manual of Patent Examining Procedure: This is a guidebook for patent examiners that provides detailed information on the rules and procedures for examining patent applications.
  6. Everett Rogers: Diffusion of innovations
  7. Copyright Law of the United States (Title 17)

Protection of Intellectual Property in the Supply Chain

ASTM International Intellectual Property Policy

Healthcare Standards Institute IP Policy

International Code Council Copyright Protection

IEEE Patent Policy

NFPA Regulations and Policies

Underwriters Laboratory Patent Policy


Intellectual Property 101


Coconut Cold Brew

The United States Food and Drug Administration and the National Coffee Association recommended standard temperature for safe hot coffee is around 160°F to 165°F (71°C to 74°C). This temperature range is considered hot enough to be enjoyable while minimizing the risk of scalding or burning.

These agencies do not have specific regulations or guidelines solely dedicated to cold brew coffee.  However, there are general principles and best practices for handling and storing perishable food products that can be applied to cold brew coffee to ensure safety.*

Cold brew coffee typically requires more time to prepare than traditional hot brew coffee. While hot brew coffee can be made in just a few minutes, cold brew coffee is made by steeping coffee grounds in cold water for an extended period of time, usually between 12 to 24 hours.

The longer steeping time allows the coffee to extract more slowly and results in a smoother, less acidic coffee concentrate. After steeping, the coffee grounds are usually filtered out and the resulting concentrate can be diluted with water, milk, or other liquids and served over ice.

While cold brew coffee does require more time to prepare, many coffee drinkers prefer its smoother, less bitter taste and lower acidity compared to hot brewed coffee. Additionally, the longer shelf life of cold brew coffee concentrate makes it a popular choice for those who like to prepare coffee in advance and have it ready to drink throughout the day.


Elon University Facilities Management

Standards North Carolina


We cover the technical standards applicable to small to medium sized coffee preparation installations in a cross-cutting way during our Kitchens 200 colloquium.

Relevant IEEE Research:

COVID-19 pandemic affected on coffee beverage decision and consumers’ behavior

Quality-Anomaly Identification in Liquid-Coffee Vending Machines Through Electrical Current Waveforms and Olfactory Data

Using Digital Marketing to Enhance Sustainability in The Coffee Business

* These recommendations are based on general food safety practices:

Water quality: Start with clean, potable water to brew your cold brew coffee. Make sure the water source is safe and free from contaminants.

Brewing process: Follow good manufacturing practices and ensure that your brewing equipment and utensils are clean and sanitized. Cold brew coffee is typically brewed using room temperature or cold water over an extended period. Ensure that the brewing container is properly sealed and protected from any potential sources of contamination.

Filtration: After the brewing process, filter the cold brew coffee to remove any sediment or particles. This can be done using a fine-mesh sieve or a dedicated filtration system.

Storage: Store the cold brew coffee in a clean, airtight container in the refrigerator. This helps to inhibit the growth of bacteria and maintain the quality of the coffee. Cold brew coffee can typically be stored for a few days to a couple of weeks, depending on the specific recipe and preparation method.

Temperature control: Keep the cold brew coffee refrigerated at a temperature below 41°F (5°C) to prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.

Serve safely: When serving cold brew coffee, use clean and sanitized utensils, containers, and dispensing equipment to avoid cross-contamination. If you add any additional ingredients like milk or sweeteners, ensure that they are stored properly and do not exceed their recommended storage times.

Intellectual Property in the Age of Open Source

Innovation management

Readings / FRAND licensing in an Unwired world

Protection of Intellectual Property in the Supply Chain

Rightsizing Electrical Power Systems

University of Michigan


Rightsizing Commercial Electrical Power Systems: Review of a New Exception in NEC Section 220.12

Michael A. AnthonyJames R. Harvey

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Thomas L. Harman

University of Houston, Clear Lake, Texas

For decades, application of National Electrical Code (NEC) rules for sizing services, feeders and branch circuits has resulted in unused capacity in almost all occupancy classes. US Department of Energy data compiled in 1999 indicates average load on building transformers between 10 and 25 percent. More recent data gathered by the educational facilities industry has verified this claim. Recognizing that aggressive energy codes are driving energy consumption lower, and that larger than necessary transformers create larger than necessary flash hazard, the 2014 NEC will provide an exception in Section 220.12 that will permit designers to reduce transformer kVA ratings and all related components of the power delivery system. This is a conservative, incremental step in the direction of reduced load density that is limited to lighting systems. More study of feeder and branch circuit loading is necessary to inform discussion about circuit design methods in future revisions of the NEC.

CLICK HERE for complete paper

University of Houston

2023 National Electrical Code NFPA 70

Morning Shower

“The Bathing Pool” | Hubert Robert (1733–1808)

CLICK IMAGE to access complete text


Design Considerations for Hot Water Plumbing

Baseline Standards for Student Housing

Indoor plumbing has a long history, but it became widely available in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In the United States, for example, the first indoor plumbing system was installed in the Governor’s Palace in Williamsburg, Virginia in the early 18th century. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that indoor plumbing became more common in middle-class homes.

One important milestone was the development of cast iron pipes in the 19th century, which made it easier to transport water and waste throughout a building. The introduction of the flush toilet in the mid-19th century also played a significant role in making indoor plumbing more practical and sanitary.

By the early 20th century, indoor plumbing had become a standard feature in most middle-class homes in the United States and other developed countries. However, it was still not widely available in rural areas and poorer urban neighborhoods until much later.

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