Tag Archives: D2/1


Life Safety Code

The Life Safety Code addresses those construction, protection, and occupancy features necessary to minimize danger to life from the effects of fire, including smoke, heat, and toxic gases created during a fire.   It is widely incorporated by reference into public safety statutes; typically coupled with the consensus products of the International Code Council.   It is a mighty document — one of the NFPA’s leading titles — so we deal with it in pieces; consulting it for decisions to be made for the following:

(1) Determination of the occupancy classification in Chapters 12 through 42.

(2) Determination of whether a building or structure is new or existing.

(3) Determination of the occupant load.

(4) Determination of the hazard of contents.

There are emergent issues — such as active shooter response, integration of life and fire safety systems on the internet of small things — and recurrent issues such as excessive rehabilitation and conformity criteria and the ever-expanding requirements for sprinklers and portable fire extinguishers with which to reckon.  It is never easy telling a safety professional paid to make a market for his product or service that it is impossible to be alive and safe.  It is even harder telling the dean of a department how much it will cost to bring the square-footage under his stewardship up to the current code.

The 2021 edition is the current edition and is accessible below:

NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Free Public Access

Public input on the 2027 Revision will be received until June 4, 2024.


Since the Life Safety Code is one of the most “living” of living documents — the International Building Code and the National Electric Code also move continuously — we can start anywhere and anytime and still make meaningful contributions to it.   We have been advocating in this document since the 2003 edition in which we submitted proposals for changes such as:

• A student residence facility life safety crosswalk between NFPA 101 and the International Building Code

• Refinements to Chapters 14 and 15 covering education facilities (with particular attention to door technologies)

• Identification of an ingress path for rescue and recovery personnel toward electric service equipment installations.

• Risk-informed requirement for installation of grab bars in bathing areas

• Modification of the 90-minute emergency lighting requirements rule for small buildings and for fixed interval testing

• Modification of emergency illumination fixed interval testing

• Table 7.3.1 Occupant Load revisions

• Harmonization of egress path width with European building codes

There are others.  It is typically difficult to make changes to stabilized standard though some of the concepts were integrated by the committee into other parts of the NFPA 101 in unexpected, though productive, ways.  Example transcripts of proposed 2023 revisions to the education facility chapter is linked below:

Chapter 14 Public Input Report: New Educational Occupancies

Educational and Day Care Occupancies: Second Draft Public Comments with Responses Report

Since NFPA 101 is so vast in its implications we list a few of the sections we track, and can drill into further, according to client interest:

Chapter 3: Definitions

Chapter 7: Means of Egress

Chapter 12: New Assembly Occupancies

Chapter 13: Existing Assembly Occupancies

Chapter 16 Public Input Report: New Day-Care Facilities

Chapter 17 Public Input Report: Existing Day Care Facilities

Chapter 18 Public Input Report: New Health Care Facilities

Chapter 19 Public Input Report: Existing Health Care Facilities

Chapter 28: Public Input Report: New Hotels and Dormitories

Chapter 29: Public Input Report: Existing Hotels and Dormitories

Chapter 43: Building Rehabilitation

Annex A: Explanatory Material

As always we encourage front-line staff, facility managers, subject matter experts and trade associations to participate directly in the NFPA code development process (CLICK HERE to get started)

NFPA 101 is a cross-cutting title so we maintain it on the agenda of our several colloquia —Housing, Prometheus, Security and Pathways colloquia.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.


Issue: [18-90]

Category: Fire Safety, Public Safety

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Josh Elvove, Joe DeRosier, Marcelo Hirschler


ARCHIVE / Life Safety Code 2003 – 2018


Fire and Life Safety in Stadiums

Elettrotecnico Lingua Franca

In our collaboration with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee we are sensitive to the point of view of our research and standards setting colleagues in other nations; among them CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) are two standardization organizations in Europe, and they have some similarities and differences.

  • CEN develops standards for a wide range of products, services, and processes, including construction, consumer goods, food and agriculture, and many others.
  • CENELEC, on the other hand, focuses specifically on electrotechnical standards, including electrical equipment, electronic components, and telecommunications.

Another key difference between CEN and CENELEC is their membership. CEN has members from 34 European countries, including national standardization bodies, industry associations, and consumer organizations. CENELEC has members from 34 European countries as well, but they are limited to national electrotechnical committees, which are responsible for electrotechnical standardization in their respective countries.

Despite their differences, both CEN and CENELEC play important roles in the development and promotion of European standards, and their standards are widely recognized and used across Europe and beyond.  Its leadership committees meet this week in Brussels. CLICK HERE to access videolinks.

Electropedia: The World’s Online Electrotechnical Vocabulary

High Voltage Electric Service

Ahead of the January 2024 technical committee meetings for the 2026 National Electrical Code technical committees — and LIVE from the IEEE Industrial Applications Society Annual Conference in Nashville — we will examine standards action in the following:

  1. How does “high voltage” differ among electrotechnology professionals?  Signaling and control systems workers have a much lower criteria than a merchant utility lineman than a campus bulk distribution engineer.  In other words, “high voltage” is generally understood in practice and essential for worker safety.  Labeling counts.
  2. What is the origin of the apparent “confusion’ about high voltage in the IEEE, IEC, NFPA and TIA electrical safety catalogs?  Is the distinction functionally acceptable — i.e. a term of art understood well enough in practice?
  3. How can the 2026 NEC be improved for engineers, electricians and inspectors?  There has been some considerable re-organization of low, medium and high voltage concepts in the 2023.  It usually takes at least two NEC revision cycles for workable code to stabilize.  Since education communities purchase and distribute higher voltage power on large campuses; how can power purchasing and customer distribution system best practice be improved?

This is plenty to talk about.   Join us today at 16:00 UTC with the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

2023 National Electrical Safety Code

2026 National Electrical Code Workspace

Time Synchronization of Medium Voltage Substations

National Electrical Definitions

Topology of Continuous Availability for LED Lighting Systems

Topology of Continuous Availability for LED Lighting Systems

Giuseppe Parise – Marco Allegri

Sapienza – Università di Roma

Luigi Parise

Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino

Raffaele Pennacchia – Fabrizio Regoli

Italian Parliament

Giorgio Vasselli

3M Elettrotecnica Rome

Abstract: Lighting systems with a big number of luminaires in large halls are a case of distributed loads that need topologies with modularity, whenever possible to ensure a uniform distribution of the supplying circuits, an easier installation, management, and maintenance. The light emitting diode (LED) luminaires give a great impact on the system operation due to their auxiliary series devices and to the high inrush currents of the ac-dc switching power supplies. This article proposes a topology to design LED lighting systems, configured in a modular scheme of a main ac distribution and a branch dc distribution supplying luminaires clusters. Each cluster is provided as a “double-dual corded” equipment with double power supply and double control type, digital, and analogic. The suggested topology aims to make available a system that allows overcoming fault situations by design and permits maintenance activities limiting and recovering degradation conditions. In this way, the lighting system of special locations, for which there is the willingness-to-accept greater financial costs against loss service risks, can satisfy the requirement of continuous availability system. To provide more details on the proposed design criteria this article describes, as case study, the lighting system of a parliamentary hall with one thousands of luminaires.

CLICK HERE to order complete paper

System Aspects of Electrical Energy

The United States National Committee of  the International Electrotechnical Commission (USNA/IEC) seeks participants and an ANSI Technical Advisory Group (US TAG) Administrator for an IEC subcommittee (Multi-Agent System) developing standards for power system network management.   From the project prospectus:

Standardization in the field of network management in interconnected electric power systems with different time horizons including design, planning, market integration, operation and control.  SC 8C covers issues such as resilience, reliability, security, stability in transmission-level networks (generally with voltage 100kV or above) and also the impact of distribution level resources on the interconnected power system, e.g. conventional or aggregated Demand Side Resources (DSR) procured from markets.

SC 8C develops normative deliverables/guidelines/technical reports such as:

– Terms and definitions in area of network management,
– Guidelines for network design, planning, operation, control, and market integration
– Contingency criteria, classification, countermeasures, and controller response, as a basis of technical requirements for reliability, adequacy, security, stability and resilience analysis,
– Functional and technical requirements for network operation management systems, stability control systems, etc.
– Technical profiling of reserve products from DSRs for effective market integration.
– Technical requirements of wide-area operation, such as balancing reserve sharing, emergency power wheeling.

Individuals who are interested in becoming a participant or the TAG Administrator for SC 8C: Network Management are invited to contact Adelana Gladstein at agladstein@ansi.org as soon as possible.

This opportunity, dealing with the system aspects of electrical energy supply (IEC TC 8), should at least interest electrical engineering research faculty and students involved in power security issues.   Participation would not only provide students with a front-row seat in power system integration but faculty can collaborate and compete (for research money) from the platform TC 8 administers.  We will refer it to the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets online 4 times monthly in European and American time zones.

IEC technical committees and subcommittees



If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration. - Nikola Tesla

Enhancing the Sustainability of Outdoor Floodlighting for Cultural Heritage Buildings

Enhancing the Sustainability of Outdoor Floodlighting for Cultural Heritage Buildings

Matej B. Kobav, et al

Faculty of Electrical engineering, University of Ljubljana Slovenia

Abstract: Improperly lit architectural heritage sites contribute to intrusive light, impacting the environment. To combat this, a methodology using specialized luminaires with silhouette-based aperture was implemented during the renovation of Slovenian churches. By precisely directing light and minimizing spillage, this approach significantly reduced intrusive light. Real-life example of the Church of St. Thomas exemplifies its success. Such sustainable strategies ensure the preservation of cultural heritage while minimizing environmental impact.


Illumination Art


Principles of Energy Saving in Buildings. A Survey


Illumination Art

“Starry Night Over the Rhône” 1888 Vincent van Gogh


I often think that the night is more alive

and more richly colored than the day.

– Vincent van Gogh


The International Commission on Illumination — is devoted to worldwide cooperation and the exchange of information on all matters relating to the science and art of light and lighting, colour and vision, photobiology and image technology.  The landing page for its standards setting enterprise is linked below:

International Standards

With strong technical, scientific and cultural foundations, the CIE is an independent, non-profit organization that serves member countries on a voluntary basis. Since its inception in 1913, the CIE has become a professional organization and has been accepted as representing the best authority on the subject and as such is recognized by ISO as an international standardization body.

Illumination technologies influence designs in architectural design, public safety and energy economics in all education communities.   We find CIE titles referenced in ISO and IEC standards.  Because ISO and IEC standards are incorporated by referenced in the best practice literature published by standards setting organizations in every nation with a private standards setting body (such as ANSI, BSI, DIN, etc.) the CIE titles are worthy of our attention.

We only have resources to track a few of them:

ISO/CIE 20086:2019(E) Light and Lighting — Energy Performance of Lighting in Buildings

ISO 30061:2007(E)/CIE S 020/E:2007 Emergency Lighting

CIE S 015/E:2005 Lighting of outdoor work places

ISO 8995-1:2002(E)/CIE S 008/E:2001 Lighting of Work Places – Part 1: Indoor

There are others that we may track in the fullness of time.  Getting illumination technology right is subtle art.  The energy to drive normal, steady-state illumination usually consumes 25 to 40 percent of building energy but application of the art — which includes control — can reduce that.

We maintain CIE titles on our periodic Energy, Global, Interiors and Illumination colloquia.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Yorkshire Dales


Workspace / Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage

Resilience of Hospital Power Systems in the Digital Age

Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli Rome


Operational Resilience of Hospital Power Systems in the Digital Age

Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Italy
Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu, Rome, Italy
Parise professional office, Italy
Cosenza Hospital District, Cosenza, Italy
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA


Abstract: An advanced guideline is required to support the design of power supply systems for the performances of service continuity and power outage resilience, which are vital for hospital power systems and strategic operational structures (SOSs). The supply sources, the power system topology, and its management are fundamental in guaranteeing the electrical resilience of the power system. There is still no standard to evaluate the adequacy of hospital power systems for natural calamities and human-made disasters and, subsequently, for the ordinary operation. The World Health Organization recognizes it as a basic problem and at this aim has to claim clearly the status of SOSs for the hospitals, recommending to safeguard and plan the full operability. The hospital power systems need a local fortified electrical structure, designed for service continuity during fault events and managed to ensure an adequate dynamic response to any emergency and maintenance needs. The importance of the business continuity management is highlighted; it has to be qualified for a permanent design with both the in-op approaches for the initial installation of the system and its life cycle operation.

CLICK HERE to order complete paper

Un mondo fatto bene

Smart Grid Blockchains

“Groningen 1565” / Georg Braun en Frans Hogenberg

Changing power: Shifting the role of electricity consumers with blockchain technology – Policy implications for EU electricity law

Lea Diestelmeier

Department of European and Economic Law and Groningen Centre of Energy Law

University of Groningen


One of the pressing legal questions of the energy transition is how to integrate “prosumers”, consumers who start producing electricity, in the electricity market. So far, their influence remains limited or fully absent because their role as independent market participants is barely or not facilitated as they are usually subject to regulated remuneration schemes. Blockchain technology offers changing the approach of “integration in the market” into “becoming the market” by enabling peer-to-peer transactions. Currently, transactions are facilitated by third parties, suppliers and system operators, whose main task is centrally compiling and coordinating information on loads and generation and contracting supply and distribution services. Instead, blockchain technology enables new ways of organising decentralised persons without the immediate need for one centrally connecting entity. This implies profound legal- and policy consequences. Based on information on first use cases of blockchain applications in the electricity sector, this article identifies those main policy implications for EU electricity law and thereby adds to the discussion how blockchain technology could facilitate “prosumers” to develop as independent market participants in the electricity sector from an energy law perspective.
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