Tag Archives: D2


Homeland Power Security

“Electric Production and Direction” 1933 / William Karp / Smithsonian American Art Museum

We collaborate with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee in assisting the US Army Corps of Engineers in gathering power system data from education communities that will inform statistical solutions for enhancing power system reliability for the Homeland.

United States Army Corps Power Relability Enhancement Program Flyer No. 1

United States Army Corps Power Reliability Enhancement Program Flyer No. 2

We maintain status information about this project — and all projects that enhance the reliability of education community power reliability — on the standing agenda of our periodic Power, Risk and Security colloquia.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone

Issue: [19-156]

Category: Power, Data, Security

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Robert G. Arno, Mark Bunal, Jim Harvey, Jerry Jimenez, Paul Kempf. Richard Robben

Education & Healthcare Facility Electrotechnology Committee

Energy 200

Iowa State University

Starting 2023 we break down our coverage of education community energy codes and standards into two tranches:

Energy 200: Codes and standards for building premise energy systems.  (Electrical, heating and cooling of the building envelope)

Standards Michigan: Building Transformers are Oversized and What We Are Doing About It

(Hint:  We are routinely “outvoted” on the National Electrical Code by stakeholders whose revenue depends upon oversized transformers.)

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (Free Download): Benefits of Electrical Submeters

US Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information: How college dormitory residents change to save energy during a competition-based energy reduction intervention

Energy Star Data Trends: Energy Use in Residence Halls

University of Alabama: Which Residence Hall Can Save the Most Energy?

Energy 400: Codes and standards for energy systems between campus buildings.  (District energy systems including interdependence with electrical and water supply)


A different “flavor of money” runs through each of these domains and this condition is reflected in best practice discovery and promulgation.  Energy 200 is less informed by tax-free (bonded) money than Energy 400 titles.

Some titles cover safety and sustainability in both interior and exterior energy domains so we simply list them below:

ASME Boiler Pressure Vessel Code

ASHRAE International 90.1 — Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

International Code Council 2021 Energy Conservation Code

cdpACCESS | Energy Complete Monograph for all 2021 cycle energy proposals (1270 pages)

International Code Council 2021 International Green Construction Code

NFPA 90 Building Energy Code

NFPA 855 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems

IEEE Electrical energy technical literature

ASTM Energy & Utilities Overview

Underwriters Laboratories Energy and Utilities

There are other ad hoc and open-source consortia that occupy at least a niche in this domain.  All of the fifty United States and the Washington DC-based US Federal Government throw off public consultations routinely and, of course, a great deal of faculty interest lies in research funding.

Please join our daily colloquia using the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.  We are also rolling out another facility — [MEETING POINT] — which should be ready for use sometime mid-2023.


Economics of Energy, Volume: 4.9 Article: 48 , James L. Sweeney, Stanford University

Global Warming: Scam, Fraud, or Hoax?, Douglas Allchin, The American Biology Teacher (2015) 77 (4): 309–313.

Helmholtz and the Conservation of Energy, By Kenneth L. Caneva, MIT Press

International District Energy Association Campus Energy 2023 Conference: February 29-March 2 (Grapevine Texas)

Climate Psychosis

Solarvoltaic PV Systems

File Joos de Momper Icarus wiki aviation drone

National Electrical Code Articles 690 and 691 provide electrical installation requirements for Owner solarvoltaic PV systems that fall under local electrical safety regulations.  Access to the 2023 Edition is linked below;

2023 National Electrical Code

Insight into the technical problems managed in the 2023 edition can be seen in the developmental transcripts linked below:

Panel 4  Public Input Report (869 pages)

Panel 4  Second Draft Comment Report (199 pages)

The IEEE Joint IAS/PES (Industrial Applications Society & Power and Energy Society) has one vote on this 21-member committee; the only pure “User-Interest” we describe in our ABOUT.  All other voting representatives on this committee represent market incumbents or are proxies for market incumbents; also described in our ABOUT.

The 2026 National Electrical Code has entered its revision cycle.  Public input is due September 7th.

We maintain these articles, and all other articles related to “renewable” energy, on the standing agenda of our Power and Solar colloquia which anyone may join with the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.   We work close coupled with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets 4 times monthly in American and European time zones; also open to everyone.





Rightsizing Electrical Power Systems

University of Michigan


Rightsizing Commercial Electrical Power Systems: Review of a New Exception in NEC Section 220.12

Michael A. AnthonyJames R. Harvey

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Thomas L. Harman

University of Houston, Clear Lake, Texas

For decades, application of National Electrical Code (NEC) rules for sizing services, feeders and branch circuits has resulted in unused capacity in almost all occupancy classes. US Department of Energy data compiled in 1999 indicates average load on building transformers between 10 and 25 percent. More recent data gathered by the educational facilities industry has verified this claim. Recognizing that aggressive energy codes are driving energy consumption lower, and that larger than necessary transformers create larger than necessary flash hazard, the 2014 NEC will provide an exception in Section 220.12 that will permit designers to reduce transformer kVA ratings and all related components of the power delivery system. This is a conservative, incremental step in the direction of reduced load density that is limited to lighting systems. More study of feeder and branch circuit loading is necessary to inform discussion about circuit design methods in future revisions of the NEC.

CLICK HERE for complete paper

University of Houston

2023 National Electrical Code NFPA 70

Electrical Resource Adequacy

Joint Federal-State Task Force on Electric Transmission

“Our nation’s continued energy transition requires the efficient development of new transmission infrastructure. Federal and state regulators must address numerous transmission-related issues, including how to plan and pay for new transmission infrastructure and how to navigate shared federal-state regulatory authority and processes. As a result, the time is ripe for greater federal-state coordination and cooperation.”



Glossary of Terms Used in NERC Reliability Standards

The Major Questions Doctrine and Transmission Planning Reform

As utilities spend billions on transmission, support builds for independent monitoring

States press FERC for independent monitors on transmission planning, spending as Southern Co. balks


Homeland Power Security

Emergency and Standby Power Systems

Electrical building, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago (1892)

FREE ACCESS to the 2022 Edition of NFPA 110 Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems

The scope of NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 are close coupled  and summarized below:

NFPA 110 Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems. This standard contains requirements covering the performance of emergency and standby power systems providing an alternate source of electrical power to loads in buildings and facilities in the event that the primary power source fails.

NFPA 111 Stored Electrical Energy for Emergency and Standby Power Systems. This standard shall cover performance requirements for stored electrical energy systems providing an alternate source of electrical power in buildings and facilities in the event that the normal electrical power source fails.


Public comment on the First Draft of the 2025 Edition will be received until May 31, 2023.  

We have advocated in this standard since 1996 and still use the original University of Michigan Workspace; though those workspaces must be upgraded to the new Google Sites during 2021.  We provide a link to the Standards Michigan Workspace and invite you to join any of our electrical colloquia which are hosted jointly with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee four times per month in European and American time zones.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [96-04]

Category: Electrical, Risk

Contact: Mike Anthony, Robert Arno, Neal Dowling, Jim Harvey, Robert Schuerger, Mike Hiler


ITM of Emergency Power Systems

Planning for Higher Education Journal: Revisiting the Campus Power Dilemma: A Case Study

Tom is a long-time colleague and friend so Mike happily posts his content:

Electrical Safety in Academic Laboratories

Nikola Tesla, with his equipment / Credit: Wellcome Library, London

At the IEEE Industrial Applications Society meetings last month in Calgary, Alberta Canada, three electrical engineering professors discussed their experiences and recommendations for electrical safety in academic settings where the teaching, research and manufacturing activity take place under the same roof; often necessarily so.  Owing to copyright restrictions upon pre-publication intellectual property we are only able to provide some of the results of the research, summarized below.   We are happy to drill down into greater detail during our monthly laboratory safety standards teleconferences.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

We collaborate closely with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets 4 times monthly in European and American time zones.  Risk managers, electrical safety inspectors, facility managers and others are welcomed to click into those teleconferences also.  We expect that concepts and recommendations this paper will find their way into future revisions of US and international electrical safety codes and standards.  There is nothing stopping education facility managers from applying the findings immediately.

College of Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar India

Electrical Safety of Academic Laboratories | 2019-PSEC-0204

Presented at the 55th IEEE Industrial Applications Society I&CPS Technical Conference | Calgary, Alberta Canada | May 6-9, 2019


Rodolfo Araneo, University of Rome “La Sapienza” | rodolfo.araneo@ieee.org

Payman Dehghanian, George Washington University | payman@gwu.edu

Massimo Mitolo, Irvine Valley College | mitolo@ieee.org


Abstract. Academic laboratories should be a safe environment in which one can teach, learn, and conduct research. Sharing a common principle, the prevention of potential accidents and imminent injuries is a fundamental goal of laboratory environments. In addition, academic laboratories are attributed the exceptional responsibility to instill in students the culture of the safety, the basis of risk assessment, and of the exemplification of the prudent practice around energized objects.  Undergraduate laboratory assignments may normally be framed based upon the repetition of established experiments and procedures, whereas, academic research laboratories may involve new methodologies and/or apparatus, for which the hazards may not be completely known to the faculty and student researchers. Yet, the academic laboratory should be an environment free of electrical hazards for both routine experiments and research endeavors, and faculty should offer practical inputs and safety-driven insights to academic administration to achieve such a paramount objective. In this paper, the authors discuss the challenges to the electrical safety in modern academic laboratories, where users may be exposed to harmful touch voltages.


A. Electricity and Human Vulnerabilities

B. Electrical Hazards in Academic Laboratories





A. Basic Rules of Engagement

B. Unidirectional Impulse Currents




Safety is the most important practice in an academic laboratory as “safety and productivity are on the same team”.  Electrical measurement and electrically-powered equipment of various brands and models are common in both teaching and research laboratories, highlighting the need to maintaining them continuously in an electrically-safe status.  Annual reports on the occurrence of electrical hazards (i.e. shocks and injuries) in academic laboratory environments primarily discover the (i) lack of knowledge on using the electrical equipment, (ii) careless use of the energized electric facilities, and (iii) faulty electrical equipment or cords. The above does call for the establishment of safety-driven codes, instructions, and trainings for the academic personnel working with or near such devices for teaching, learning, experiments, and research. This paper provided background information on the concept of electrical safety in the academic laboratories, presented the safety challenges of modern academic laboratories, and offered solutions on how enhance the lab environment and research personnel safety awareness to avoid and control electrical hazards.

Issue: [19-129]

Category: Electrical, Facility Asset Management, Fire Safety, International

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Rodolfo Araneo, Payman Dehghanian, Jim Harvey, Massimo Mitolo, Joe Tedesco

Related IEEE Research:

Laboratory Safety and Ethics

Strengthening and Upgrading of Laboratory Safety Management Based on Computer Risk Identification

Study on the Operators’ Attention of Different Areas in University Laboratories Based on Eye Movement Tracking Technology

Critical Study on the feasiblity of Smart Laboratory Coats

Design of Safety Monitoring System for Electrical Laboratory in Colleges and Universities under the Background of Informatization

Clean Environment Tools Design For Smart Campus Laboratory Through a Global Pandemic

Design of Laboratory Fire Safety Monitoring System

Pathways 100

Today we break down the literature for exterior and interior pathways in education communities.   We limit the term “pathway” to refer to human pathways (as in egress and ingress paths); not wiring or piping pathways.   Maximum distance of travel from within a building and along an egress path toward safety is a core topic in building safety literature.  Starting 2023 we will break down coverage of subject catalogs and bibliographies:

Pathways 100: Survey of all titles for both the exterior and interior environments

Pathways 200: Review of codes, standards and guidelines for building interiors

Pathways 300: Review of codes, standards and guidelines campus environment outside the buildings; all seaons.

Pathways 500: Review of noteworthy litigation.   Campus pathways are rich in possibilities for legal actions so we will refresh our understanding of the landmark decisions.

This breakdown is “somewhat” inspired by recent action by ASHRAE International to expand the scope of ASHRAE 90.1 to heating and cooling environments outside buildings.   The new title of ASHRAE 901. includes the word “Site”, which is another way of saying “the world” outside buildings.   Standards Michigan commented on the consequences of doing this in the proposal stages in 2020-2021.

The topic involves titles from many standards setting organizations; among them:

American National Standards Institute

C136-series for street lighting

International Code Council (accessible and useable ingress and egress entrances, paths and exits)

International Building Code: Chapter 10 Means of Egress

ICC A117 Accessibility Meeting Agenda December 15 2022 (Pathways)

ICC A117.1 2023 Meeting Calendar Accessible and Useable Buildings

Modifications for A117.1 12-1-2022 meeting

A117.1 11-17-2022 Agenda 20

A117.1 7-28-2022 Minutes 12

IFC §909.21.6 Proposal FS118-21 Pressurization systems for elevator pathways (now being discussed during the ICC Group A Committee Action Hearings in September)

American Society of Civil Engineers (roads, sidewalks)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME A17.1-2019: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (wayfinding along unofficial footpaths using the internet of small things)

Education & Healthcare Facility Electrotechnology

Recommended Practice for the Design of Power Systems Supplying Lighting Systems in Commercial and Industrial Facilities

Wayfinding: Current Research

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

National Fire Protection Association (fire protection for interior premises, fire truck routes, electric signage, security)

2021 NFPA 101 Life Safety Code

Chapter 3 Means of Egress

Chapter 12-13 Assembly Occupancies

Chapter 14-15 Educational Occupancies

Chapter 18-19 Health Care Occupancies

2022 Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems

Chapter 5 – Emergency Power Supply: Energy Sources, Converters and Accessories

ASTM International Committee C09 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates

Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates

…And about 20 others.

We might venture onto the minefield of sensitivities about signage: too much, too many, too big, too small?  There are signs everywhere in academia.

Many titles in the foregoing list are inspired by legal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act administered by the US Department of Justice

As usual, we’ll only have time to identify the titles and concepts in motion and set up a separate markup session.   Open to everyone; use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Texas Tech


International Building Code §3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 

2023 National Electrical Code Article 420 — Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps

2023 National Electrical Code Article 600 – Electric Signs and Outline Lighting

2023 National Electrical Code Article 620 — Elevators, Dumbwaiters, Escalators, Moving Walks, Lifts and Chairlifts


Shaping the Sidewalk Experience

The 8 Principles of Sidewalks

Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation

“The Via Appia: A Case Study in the Political Geography of Imperialism” Hannah Friedman.  This article, published in the Journal of Historical Geography in 2011, examines the Appian Way as a product of Roman imperialism and a reflection of Roman attitudes toward the landscape and its inhabitants. The author draws on both textual and archaeological evidence to explore the road’s impact on the regions it passed through.

“The Appian Way: The Road that Built the Roman Empire” by Richard Talbert – Cambridge University Press 2012.  A a comprehensive study of the Appian Way and its significance to the Roman Empire. The author draws on a wide range of archaeological and historical evidence to explore the road’s construction, use, and legacy.



Campus Outdoor Lighting

“The Starry Night” | Vincent van Gogh

The IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee has completed a chapter on recommended practice for designing, building, operating and maintaining campus exterior lighting systems in the forthcoming IEEE 3001.9 Recommended Practice for the Design of Power Systems for Supplying Commercial and Industrial Lighting Systems; a new IEEE Standards Association title inspired by, and derived from, the legacy “IEEE Red Book“.  The entire IEEE Color Book suite is in the process of being replaced by the IEEE 3000 Standards Collection™  which offers faster-moving and more scaleable, guidance to campus power system designers.

Campus exterior lighting systems generally run in the 100 to 10,000 fixture range and are, arguably, the most visible characteristic of public safety infrastructure.   Some major research universities have exterior lighting systems that are larger and more complex than cooperative and municipal power company lighting systems which are regulated by public service commissions.

While there has been considerable expertise in developing illumination concepts by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, Illumination Engineering Society, the American Society of Heating and Refrigeration Engineers, the International Electrotechnical Commission and the International Commission on Illumination, none of them contribute to leading practice discovery for the actual power chain for these large scale systems on a college campus.   The standard of care has been borrowed, somewhat anecdotally, from public utility community lighting system practice.  These concepts need to be revisited as the emergent #SmartCampus takes shape.

Electrical power professionals who service the education and university-affiliated healthcare facility industry should communicate directly with Mike Anthony (maanthon@umich.edu) or Jim Harvey (jharvey@umich.edu).  This project is also on the standing agenda of the IEEE E&H committee which meets online 4 times monthly — every other Tuesday — in European and American time zones.  Login credentials are available on its draft agenda page.

Issue: [15-199]

Category: Electrical, Public Safety, Architectural, #SmartCampus, Space Planning, Risk Management

Contact: Mike Anthony, Kane Howard, Jim Harvey, Dev Paul, Steven Townsend, Kane Howard


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