Tag Archives: D5


Special Events

“View of the Colosseum” 1747 Giovanni Paolo Panini

Special event safety and sustainability — keeping large groups of people safe and engaged in the event itself — cuts across many disciplines.  Educational settlements are ideal settings and the raison d’être for these communities everywhere.   Today at 15:00 UTC we will charge through the best practice catalogs of the following standards setting organizations:

American Society of Civil Engineers

Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Water closets & Hygiene devices

American National Standards Institute

American Water Works Association

ASHRAE International

ASTM International

Consumer Technology Association

International Code Council

ICC 300 Bleachers, Folding Seating, Grandstands

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

Automated Sports Court Drawing Bot

International Standardization Organization

ISO/PC 250 Sustainability in event management (British Standards Institute is the Global Secretariat)

List of All ANSI ISO TAGS  (There is no ANSI US TAG Administrator as of 1 October 2023)

National Fire Protection Association

Arenas, Lecture Halls & Theaters

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

Telecommunications Industry Association

Underwriter Laboratories

At the moment we cover outdoor and indoor events because, conceptually, there is substantial overlap.  It is likely, however, that in the fullness of time we will have to break down the coverage between exterior and interior events.

There are a number of titles from the foregoing short list of SDO’s that are open for consultation during the next 30 to 90 days so it is not likely we will have time to examine other niche SDO’s in the special event domain.  For example:

Audio Standards

Audiovisual Experiences

Theater Safety

Baseball Lighting

Entertainment Technology

Lighting Theatre & Auditorium Spaces

There are others.

Media production audio visual

Action on open global and government consultations, and examination of developments in the research bibliography will have to wait for another day also.  We cover them fairly well in the breakout meetings shown on our CALENDAR.

As always, today’s colloquium in open to everyone with the login credentials available on the upper right of our home page.

Sport Scoreboards

Virtual reality technology in evacuation simulation of sport stadiums

The application research of virtual reality technology in emergency evacuation simulation of sports stadium

Xiao Yi | Shanghai University of Sport

Abstract. With the activities of major sports events have become increasingly active and the social influence of sports events is gradually increasing, people have more and more opportunities to watch matches in sports stadiums. Sports stadium, as a place of relatively large occupant density, has high demands for its safe operation except that it is necessary to meet the needs of competitions. Under the unexpected situations, how to ensure the public safety has become the focus of social concern. This paper takes the emergent evacuation simulation of sports stadium as a main research object. It concerns the main problems that how to use virtual reality technology to build a three-dimensional simulated scene of sports stadium; how to truly simulated the whole evacuation process of many people under unexpected situations. The scene modeling of sports stadium, The construction of evacuation model, The visualization of evacuation process, Dynamic Roaming and Interaction design, Evaluation system and other issues are discussed in this article.

Ming Emperor Xianzong Enjoying the Lantern Festival (CLICK IMAGE to launch Zoom interactive viewer)

CLICK HERE to order complete paper

Related IEEE Research:

Research on the construction and development of intelligent sports teaching environment in Universities

Design of an Intelligent Management System for Sports Activities Based on New Information Technology

The Application Research of Data Analysis of Student’s Physical Health Testing on Optional Courses of Ice and Snow Sports

Research on the Application of Flipped Classroom Model in College Sports Dance Teaching

Means of Egress

Life Safety Code

Bleachers, Folding Seating & Grandstands

Readings: The “30-30” Rule for Outdoor Athletic Events Lightning Hazard

Thunderstorm | Shelter (Building: 30/30 Rule)

The standards for delaying outdoor sports due to lightning are typically set by governing bodies such as sports leagues, associations, or organizations, as well as local weather authorities. These standards may vary depending on the specific sport, location, and level of play. However, some common guidelines for delaying outdoor sports due to lightning include:

  1. Lightning Detection Systems: Many sports facilities are equipped with lightning detection systems that can track lightning activity in the area. These systems use sensors to detect lightning strikes and provide real-time information on the proximity and severity of the lightning threat. When lightning is detected within a certain radius of the sports facility, it can trigger a delay or suspension of outdoor sports activities.
  2. Lightning Distance and Time Rules: A common rule of thumb used in outdoor sports is the “30-30” rule, which states that if the time between seeing lightning and hearing thunder is less than 30 seconds, outdoor activities should be suspended, and participants should seek shelter. The idea is that lightning can strike even when it is not raining, and thunder can indicate the proximity of lightning. Once the thunder is heard within 30 seconds of seeing lightning, the delay or suspension should be implemented.
  3. Local Weather Authority Guidelines: Local weather authorities, such as the National Weather Service in the United States, may issue severe weather warnings that include lightning information. Sports organizations may follow these guidelines and suspend outdoor sports activities when severe weather warnings, including lightning, are issued for the area.
  4. Sports-Specific Guidelines: Some sports may have specific guidelines for lightning delays or suspensions. For example, golf often follows a “Play Suspended” policy, where play is halted immediately when a siren or horn is sounded, and players are required to leave the course and seek shelter. Other sports may have specific rules regarding how long a delay should last, how players should be informed, and when play can resume.

It’s important to note that safety should always be the top priority when it comes to lightning and outdoor sports. Following established guidelines and seeking shelter when lightning is detected or severe weather warnings are issued can help protect participants from the dangers of lightning strikes.

Noteworthy: NFPA titles such as NFPA 780 and NFPA 70 Article 242 deal largely with wiring safety, informed by assuring a low-resistance path to earth (ground)

There are various lightning detection and monitoring devices available on the market that can help you stay safe during thunderstorms. Some of these devices can track the distance of lightning strikes and alert you when lightning is detected within a certain radius of your location. Some devices can also provide real-time updates on lightning strikes in your area, allowing you to make informed decisions about when to seek shelter.

Examples of such devices include personal lightning detectors, lightning alert systems, and weather stations that have lightning detection capabilities. It is important to note that these devices should not be solely relied upon for lightning safety and should be used in conjunction with other safety measures, such as seeking shelter indoors and avoiding open areas during thunderstorms.

Art Studios

“De Schilderkonst” 1666 Johannes Vermeer


Last update: September 30 2021

Safety and sustainability for any facility begins with an understanding of who shall occupy the built environment and what they will be doing in it.  Since we are guiding young people toward their goal of building things that are useful and beautiful we select the International Building Code as a starting point for an occupancy that requires a more elevated concern for safety than a typical classroom.

2021 International Building Code Section 307 High Hazard Group H

High-hazard occupancies in each of the International Code Council code development groups A, B and C; fetch back to these classifications.

Public input for the 2024 International Building Code will be received until January 8, 2024.

For the purpose of formulating our own proposals we begin with the developmental transcripts of the previous code cycle. Recommended search terms: “Section 307”, “Studio”, “Classroom” “University” will give you a sample of the ideas in play.  The complete monograph is linked below:

2021 Group A Complete Proposed Changes Monograph (2306 Pages)

2021 PUBLIC COMMENT HEARING SCHEDULE September 21 – 26, 2021

Webcast: 2021 Group A Public Comment Hearings

Titles in the ICC catalog are relevant to nearly every study unit in our Syllabus.  See our CALENDAR for topics and do not be shy about clicking in any business day at 16:00 UTC (11 AM ET).


Issue: [18-166]

Category: Various

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Marcelo Hirschler, Richard Robben


Mount Holyoke University: Safety Guide for Art Studios

Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films

IEEE: Textile humidity sensors

Fire at Pratt Institute Destroys Studios and Artwork of Students

Safety Guide for Art Studios

Princeton University Art Safety

Art, Design & Fashion Studios

“Interior de Ateliê” 1898 Rafael Frederico

We are guided by four interdependent titles that set the standard of care for safety and sustainability of occupancies supporting the fine arts in education communities.

(1)  Chapter 43: Spraying, Dipping and Coating Using Flammable or Combustible Material of NFPA 1: Fire Code.   As a “code” the public has free access to the current 2021 Edition , and Chapter 43 at the link below:

NFPA 1 Fire Code / Chapter 43 Spraying, Dipping and Coating Using Flammable or Combustible Materials

You get a sense of the back-and-forth among the technical committee members from the transcripts of committee activity linked below:

First Revisions Report (282 pages)

Our interest lies in fire safety provisions for educational occupancies with activity involving paint, chemicals used with paint (art studios) and Class III combustible materials (garment design & prototyping).

(2) NFPA also has another title — NFPA 33 Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials — provides more detail for instructional and facility maintenance operations activity.

(3) NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, much of which is derived from NFPA 1 (See: “How the Fire Code and Life Safety Code Work Together“)

(4) Finally, the International Code Council develops a competitor title — 2021 International Fire Code — which also provides fire safety standards for art, design and fashion studio safety.  The IFC is developed in the Group A tranche of titles:

2021/2022 Code Development Group A


We encourage direct participation by education industry user-interests in the ICC and the NFPA code development process.  A user interest in education community would have a job title similar to the following: Principal, Dean, President, Chief of Business Operations, Facility Manager, Trade Shop Foreman.

Harvard University

We maintain all four titles identified in this post on the standing agenda of our Prometheus (fire safety) and Fine Arts colloquia.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [10-31] [16-64]

Category: Fire Safety

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Josh Evolve, Marcelo Hirschler


Northeastern University: Safety Guide for Art Studios

Princeton University: Art Safety

University of Chicago Art Studio Safety Policy


Bucolia 100

I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;
Nine bean-rows will I have there, a hive for the honey-bee,
And live alone in the bee-loud glade.
And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;
There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,
And evening full of the linnet’s wings.
I will arise and go now, for always night and day
I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;
While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey,

I hear it in the deep heart’s core.

— William Butler Yeats

Anglo-americká vysoká škola, z.ú. Czech Republic

Today we walk through literature governing the safety and sustainability of the open space features of education community estates.   Unlike the titles for the building envelope, which are known to most design professionals and contractors, the standards for grounds and landscaping are widely scattered; many of them occupational safety related; created, administered and enforced by units of government.

Bucolia 100.  We present a broad overview of the dominant standards catalogs incorporated by reference into public safety and sustainability legislation.

Bucolia 200.  We drill into technical specifics of the titles in Bucolia 100.

Bucolia 400.  We pick through case studies in landscape, garden, tree and water literature.  We also track titles about the reclamation of building roofs for permeable surfaces and gardens.

During the winter months (Bucolia 200) in the northern hemisphere we include snow and ice management; while covering summer month technologies for southern hemisphere (and vice-versa).  Snowfalls in the southern hemisphere are mainly contained to the highlands and mountain ranges, which are almost exclusively in Victoria and Southern New South Wales, as well as the mountains in Tasmania.   Winter does not pose as much of a cost burden to education facilities in the southern hemisphere as it does in the northern hemisphere.


Landscape standards refer to guidelines or regulations that specify the requirements for the design, installation, and maintenance of outdoor spaces such as parks, gardens, streetscapes, and public spaces. Landscape standards typically cover various aspects of landscape design, including vegetation selection, planting arrangements, irrigation systems, hardscape materials, and lighting.

These standards may be set by government agencies at the federal, state, or local level, or by professional organizations such as the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA). Landscape standards aim to ensure that outdoor spaces are safe, functional, and aesthetically pleasing while also promoting sustainability and environmental protection.

Landscape standards may also address issues such as accessibility for people with disabilities, water conservation, stormwater management, and erosion control. They may vary depending on the specific location, climate, and intended use of the outdoor space. Compliance with landscape standards may be required for approval of development projects, public funding, or other permits.

We track the standards catalog of two ANSI-accredited standards developers:

American Hort

Tree Care Industry Association

Additional practice titles applicable to accessory systems:

ASABE/ICC 802 Landscape Irrigation Sprinkler and Emitter Standard 

ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Standard for Sites and Buildings

Golf Course Superintendents Association of America

National Electrical Code: Article 411 Low-Voltage Lighting

Upcode Article 411

National Electrical Code: Article 225: Outside Branch Circuits and Feeders

Illumination Engineering Society (Lighting Library)

IoT Enabled Smart Gardening

Land F/X: Landscape Lighting, Codes, Guidelines and Techniques  

OSHA Landscape and Horticultural Services

Sports Turf Managers Association

As a cross-cutting subjectSports Turf Managers Association ( involving soil and water and sun many other standards developers, and all levels of government, produce best practice literature for today’s topic.  We’ll have a look at what’s moving among those.

To join us use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Keeping Soil Alive

Landscape Lighting


Luminaires receive operating energy at voltage ranges from 120V to 600V AC.  For safety and aesthetic reasons — in gardens or inside stairway balustrades or bollards, for example — low voltage lighting is preferred.   The illumination of the pathway, for example, reduces risk to the community far more than the risk voltage presents.  These installations typically operate at 12 to 50 volts direct current.  Manufacturers bear much of the electrical safety burden; assuming the Owner installs and maintains the system correctly.

Faster than anyone will expect, interior building lighting will morph into low voltage systems because 1) the lower energy supply required by LED luminaires will make it possible to pipe that energy through low voltage cabling systems, 2) the pace of innovation we see in information and communication technologies will use those cabling systems for greater control of illumination systems.

We see these trends tracking in two sections of the 2020 National Electrical Code:

Article 300 Wiring Methods (Table 300.5)

Article 411 Low-Voltage Lighting

CLICK HERE for Free Access to the current 2023 Edition.

Comments on Public Input for the 2026 Revision will be received until 28 August 2024. Use workspace linked below:

2026 National Electrical Code Workspace

CMP-9 Article 300

CMP-9 Public Input with Committee Response

CMP-18 Article 411

CMP-18 Public Input with Committee Response

Apart from integrating a new definition of “extra low voltage” into the NEC, Article 411 is a relatively quiet part of the NEC.  Not so with Article 300 which is of great consequence to wiring manufacturers, among others.

Transylvania University Kentucky

We coordinate our advocacy in all education community electrotechnologies with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets online 4 times monthly in both European and American time zones.  We maintain low voltage lighting on the standing agenda of our Power and Bucolia colloquia.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [NFPA Workspace]

Category: Power, Illumination, Bucolia

Colleages: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey (University of Michigan), Kane Howard, Glenn Keates (Michigan State University), George Zsissis (University of Toulouse)

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