Tag Archives: M1


Capra hircus

Goat farming is an important source of livelihood for many small-scale farmers in developing countries, particularly in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The FAO estimates that more than 90% of the world’s goats are raised in developing countries, where they provide a critical source of food and income for rural communities.

Overall, the global goat farming industry continues to grow, driven by increasing demand for goat meat and milk products, as well as the potential for sustainable agriculture practices.


Low start-up costs: Goat farming requires relatively low start-up costs compared to other types of agriculture. Goats are small animals that do not require much space, and they can be raised in a variety of environments, from small backyard farms to large commercial operations.

High productivity: Goats are known for their high reproductive rate, which allows farmers to increase their herd size quickly. They are also efficient at converting food into milk and meat, making them a profitable investment for farmers.

Multiple uses: Goats can be raised for meat, milk, and fiber, making them a versatile livestock option. Additionally, their manure can be used as fertilizer, and they can be used for weed control on farms and other properties.

Sustainable farming: Goat farming can be a sustainable agricultural practice, as goats do not require large amounts of feed or water, and they can be raised on marginal lands that are unsuitable for other types of agriculture.


Predation: Goats are vulnerable to predation by coyotes, dogs, and other predators, which can be a significant problem for farmers, especially in rural areas.

Disease susceptibility: Goats are susceptible to a variety of diseases, some of which can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Additionally, some diseases can be transmitted to humans, making it important for farmers to take precautions when handling their animals.

Market volatility: The demand for goat products can be volatile, and prices can fluctuate significantly based on supply and demand. This can make it challenging for farmers to predict their income and manage their finances.

Labor intensive: Goat farming can be labor-intensive, especially during kidding and milking seasons. This can make it difficult for farmers to manage their workload, especially if they have a large herd.

Girl with a Goat | Benton County Arkansas


Animal Safety

Banished Words 2023

Lake Superior State University Michigan



“The Janitor” — A Short Documentary

The janitorial profession is not just about cleaning, it’s about creating a safe and healthy environment for people to live and work. A good janitor is like a good detective. They notice the things that others overlook, and they take care of problems before they become bigger problems.


Hephaestus: God of Fire, Metalwork, and Building

Today we survey the broad sweep of the International Code Council catalog of best practice titles; typically incorporated by reference into public safety regulations.  This session will be a “survey” and “organizational” session when we limit detail and simply identify priority titles and the technical specifics in play over the next twelve months.

Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

International Green Construction Code: Definitions

International Fire Code

Storm Shelters


International Energy Conservation Code

Sport Occupancies

International Mechanical Code

Higher Education Laboratories

Interior Finishes

Morning Shower

International Building Code Electrical

Day Care

Stadium & Arena Structural Engineering

Off-Site Construction

K-TAG Matrix for Healthcare Facilities


Fireplace Safety

Many accommodations such as dormitories, fraternities and sororities have working fireplaces — wood burning and natural gas.  Community spaces such as student unions, libraries and recreation spaces also have fireplaces as a central feature.

The purpose of NFPA 211 is to reduce fire hazards by discovering and promulgating best practice for the safe removal of flue gases, the proper installation of solid fuel-burning appliances, and the correct construction and installation of chimneys, fireplaces, and venting systems.  The current 2019 Edition is linked below:

Free Access: NFPA 221 Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances

The 2024 revision is in its later stages and will be released for public use in the 4th Quarter of 2023.  Redlines for this revision are linked below:

Public Input Report

Second Revisions Report

Comment on the Second Draft will be received until February 28th.  We encourage facility managers to recommend improvements to this standard by setting up a (Free) NFPA account the link below:

Online submission of public input and public comments

We maintain this standard on our periodic Prometheus and Housing colloquia.  Consult our CALENDAR for the next online meeting, open to everyone


NFPA 211: Articles and News

University of Rochester Fireplace Safety

American Gas Association: How Natural Gas Fuels Your Holiday Traditions



Electrical heat tracing: international harmonization-now and in the future


Electrical heat tracing: international harmonization-now and in the future

C. Sandberg

Tyco Thermal Controls

N.R. Rafferty – M. Kleinehanding – J.J. Hernandez

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company, Inc 


Abstract:  In the past, electrical heat tracing has been thought of as a minor addition to plant utilities. Today, it is recognized as a critical subsystem to be monitored and controlled. A marriage between process, mechanical, and electrical engineers must take place to ensure that optimum economic results are produced. The Internet, expert systems, and falling costs of instrumentation will all contribute to more reliable control systems and improved monitoring systems. There is a harmonization between Europe and North America that should facilitate design and installation using common components. The future holds many opportunities to optimize the design.

CLICK HERE to order complete paper


Industrial electroheating and electromagnetic processing

Pipe Heating

Heat Tracing

Outdoor Deicing & Snow Melting

“Snow at Argenteuil” | Claude Monet (1875)

Today our focus turns to outdoor electric deicing and snow melting wiring systems identified as suitable for the environment and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.  They work silently to keep snow load from caving in roofs and icicles falling from gutters onto pedestrian pathways.

While the voltage and ampere requirement of the product itself is a known characteristic, the characteristic 0f the wiring pathway — voltage, ampere, grounding, short circuit, disconnect and control — is relatively more complicated and worthy of our attention.   Articles 426-427 of the National Electrical Code is the relevant part of the NEC

Free Access 2023 National Electrical Code

Insight into the ideas running through technical committee deliberations is provided by a review of Panel 17 transcripts:

2023 NEC Panel 17 Public Input Report (633 pages)

2023 NEC Panel 17 Public Comment Report (190 pages)

We hold Articles 427 in the middle of our priority ranking for the 2023 NEC.   We find that the more difficult issues for this technology is the determination of which trade specifies these systems — architectural, electrical, or mechanical; covered in previous posts.   Instead, most of our time will be spent getting IEEE consensus products in step with it, specifically ANSI/IEEE 515 and IEEE 844/CSA 293.

Technical committee work on the 2023 National Electrical Code was completed in October.  Public input on the 2026 Edition will be received until 7 September 2023.

We collaborate with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facility Committee which meets online 4 times per month in European and American time zones.  Since a great deal of the technical basis for the NEC originates with the IEEE we will also collaborate with IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 18 whose members are charged by the IEEE Standards Association to coordinate NFPA and IEEE consensus products.

Issue: [19-151]

Category: Electrical, Energy

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Kane Howard, Jose Meijer


IEEE Standard for the Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Heat Tracing for Commercial Applications

844.2/CSA C293.2-2017 – IEEE/CSA Standard for Skin Effect Trace Heating of Pipelines, Vessels, Equipment, and Structures–Application Guide for Design, Installation, Testing, Commissioning, and Maintenance


Incredible snow removal

Ice Hockey Arena Lighting

After athletic arena life safety obligations are met (governed legally by NFPA 70, NFPA 101, NFPA 110,  the International Building Code and possibly other state adaptations of those consensus documents incorporated by reference into public safety law) business objective standards may come into play.For almost all athletic facilities,  the consensus documents of the Illumination Engineering Society[1], the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers[2][3] provide the first principles for life safety.  For business purposes, the documents distributed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association inform the standard of care for individual athletic arenas so that swiftly moving media production companies have some consistency in power sources and illumination as they move from site to site.  Sometimes concepts to meet both life safety and business objectives merge.


During hockey season the document linked below provides information to illumination designers and facility managers:

NCAA Best Lighting Practices

Athletic programs are a significant source of revenue and form a large part of the foundation of the brand identity of most educational institutions in the United States.   We focus primarily upon the technology standards that govern the safety, performance and sustainability of these enterprises.  We collaborate very closely with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee where subject matter experts in electrical power systems meet 4 times each month in the Americas and Europe.

See our CALENDAR for our next colloquium on Sport facility codes and standards  We typically walk through the safety and sustainability concepts in play; identify commenting opportunities; and find user-interest “champions” on the technical committees who have a similar goal in lowering #TotalCostofOwnership.

Issue: [15-138]*

Category: Electrical, Architectural, Arts & Entertainment Facilities, Athletics

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Jack Janveja, Jose Meijer, Scott Gibbs


[1] Illumination Engineering Handbook

[2] IEEE 3001.9 Recommended Practice for Design of Power Systems for Supplying Lighting Systems for Commercial & Industrial Facilities

[3] IEEE 3006.1 Power System Reliability


* Issue numbering before 2016 dates back to the original University of Michigan codes and standards advocacy enterprise 

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