Tag Archives: M12


Capra hircus

Goat farming is an important source of livelihood for many small-scale farmers in developing countries, particularly in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. The FAO estimates that more than 90% of the world’s goats are raised in developing countries, where they provide a critical source of food and income for rural communities.

Overall, the global goat farming industry continues to grow, driven by increasing demand for goat meat and milk products, as well as the potential for sustainable agriculture practices.


Low start-up costs: Goat farming requires relatively low start-up costs compared to other types of agriculture. Goats are small animals that do not require much space, and they can be raised in a variety of environments, from small backyard farms to large commercial operations.

High productivity: Goats are known for their high reproductive rate, which allows farmers to increase their herd size quickly. They are also efficient at converting food into milk and meat, making them a profitable investment for farmers.

Multiple uses: Goats can be raised for meat, milk, and fiber, making them a versatile livestock option. Additionally, their manure can be used as fertilizer, and they can be used for weed control on farms and other properties.

Sustainable farming: Goat farming can be a sustainable agricultural practice, as goats do not require large amounts of feed or water, and they can be raised on marginal lands that are unsuitable for other types of agriculture.


Predation: Goats are vulnerable to predation by coyotes, dogs, and other predators, which can be a significant problem for farmers, especially in rural areas.

Disease susceptibility: Goats are susceptible to a variety of diseases, some of which can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Additionally, some diseases can be transmitted to humans, making it important for farmers to take precautions when handling their animals.

Market volatility: The demand for goat products can be volatile, and prices can fluctuate significantly based on supply and demand. This can make it challenging for farmers to predict their income and manage their finances.

Labor intensive: Goat farming can be labor-intensive, especially during kidding and milking seasons. This can make it difficult for farmers to manage their workload, especially if they have a large herd.

Girl with a Goat | Benton County Arkansas


Animal Safety

Banished Words 2023

Lake Superior State University Michigan



Ice Hockey Arena Lighting

After athletic arena life safety obligations are met (governed legally by NFPA 70, NFPA 101, NFPA 110,  the International Building Code and possibly other state adaptations of those consensus documents incorporated by reference into public safety law) business objective standards may come into play.For almost all athletic facilities,  the consensus documents of the Illumination Engineering Society[1], the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers[2][3] provide the first principles for life safety.  For business purposes, the documents distributed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association inform the standard of care for individual athletic arenas so that swiftly moving media production companies have some consistency in power sources and illumination as they move from site to site.  Sometimes concepts to meet both life safety and business objectives merge.


During hockey season the document linked below provides information to illumination designers and facility managers:

NCAA Best Lighting Practices

Athletic programs are a significant source of revenue and form a large part of the foundation of the brand identity of most educational institutions in the United States.   We focus primarily upon the technology standards that govern the safety, performance and sustainability of these enterprises.  We collaborate very closely with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee where subject matter experts in electrical power systems meet 4 times each month in the Americas and Europe.

See our CALENDAR for our next colloquium on Sport facility codes and standards  We typically walk through the safety and sustainability concepts in play; identify commenting opportunities; and find user-interest “champions” on the technical committees who have a similar goal in lowering #TotalCostofOwnership.

Issue: [15-138]*

Category: Electrical, Architectural, Arts & Entertainment Facilities, Athletics

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Jack Janveja, Jose Meijer, Scott Gibbs


[1] Illumination Engineering Handbook

[2] IEEE 3001.9 Recommended Practice for Design of Power Systems for Supplying Lighting Systems for Commercial & Industrial Facilities

[3] IEEE 3006.1 Power System Reliability


* Issue numbering before 2016 dates back to the original University of Michigan codes and standards advocacy enterprise 

Kim DelPizzo

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Evensong “When I Go”

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Winterwoche Woche 52 | 26. Dezember – 1. Januar

«Зимний день» 1934 Konstantin Gorbatov

Montag | 26. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Dienstag | 27. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Mittwoch | 28. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Donnerstag | 29. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC

FinTech 100

Freitag | 30. Dezember | Kolloquium 16:00 UTC


Samstag | 31. Dezember

Sonntag | 1. Januar

Looking Ahead: Weeks 2023

World Clock

Crop Calendar Charts

List of multinational festivals and holidays


Forbidden Words

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Heat Tracing Installation

“Vue de toits (effet de neige)” 1878 Gustave Caillebotte

One of the core documents for heat tracing is entering a new 5-year revision cycle; a consensus standard that is especially relevant this time of year because of the personal danger and property damage that is possible in the winter months.  Education communities depend upon heat tracing for several reasons; just a few of them listed below:

  • Ice damming in roof gutters that can cause failure of roof and gutter structural support
  • Piping systems for sprinkler systems and emergency power generation equipment
  • Sidewalk, ramp and stairway protection

IEEE 515 Standard for the Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Trace Heating for Industrial Applications is one of several consensus documents for trace heating technology.   Its inspiration originates in the petrochemical industry but its principles apply to all education facilities exposed to cold temperature and snow.   From its prospectus:

This standard provides requirements for the testing, design,installation, and maintenance of electrical resistance trace heating in general industries as applied to pipelines, vessels, pre-traced and thermally insulated instrument tubing and piping, and mechanical equipment. The electrical resistance trace heating is in the form of series trace heaters, parallel trace heaters, and surface heating devices. The requirements also include test criteria to determine the suitability of these heating devices utilized in unclassified (ordinary) locations.

Its principles can, and should be applied with respect to other related documents:

National Electrical Code Article 427

NECA 202 Standard for Installing and Maintaining Industrial Heat Tracing Systems

IEC 62395 Electrical resistance trace heating systems for industrial and commercial applications

 ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

Lowell House / Harvard University

We are happy to explain the use of this document in design guidelines and/or construction specifications during any of our daily colloquia.   We generally find more authoritative voices in collaborations with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets 4 times per month in Europe and in the Americas.  We maintain this title on the standing agenda of our Snow & Ice colloquia.  See our CALENDER for the next online meeting.

Issue: [18-331]

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Jim Harvey, Kane Howard

Category: Electrical, #SmartCampus


Good Building Practice for Northern Facilities

Electrical Heat Tracing:International Harmonization Now and in the Future, IEEE Industry Standards Magazine, May/June 2002 pages 50-56


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