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Internet of Small Things

경북대학교 / Kyungpook National University

A Big Data Analytics Architecture for the Internet of Small Things

 

Moneeb Gohar & Murad Khan & Awais Ahmad – Kyungpook National University

Syed Hassan Ahmed – University of Central Florida

Nadra Guizani – Purdue University

 

Abstract.  The SK Telecom Company of South Korea recently introduced the concept of IoST to its business model. The company deployed IoST, which constantly generates data via the LoRa wireless platform. The increase in data rates generated by IoST is escalating exponentially. After attempting to analyze and store the massive volume of IoST data using existing tools and technologies, the South Korean company realized the shortcomings immediately. The current article addresses some of the issues and presents a big data analytics architecture for its IoST. A system developed using the proposed architecture will be able to analyze and store IoST data efficiently while enabling better decisions. The proposed architecture is composed of four layers, namely the small things layer, infrastructure layer, platform layer, and application layer. Finally, a detailed analysis of a big data implementation of the IoST used to track humidity and temperature via Hadoop is presented as a proof of concept.

CLICK HERE to order complete paper

Theater Safety

Set design model by Marcel Jambon for an 1895 Paris production of Giuseppe Verdi’s Otello

 

“We have art in order not to perish from the truth”

— Friedrich Nietzsche

 

Demand for live events in college towns — what is now called”entertainment content” — is gathering pace; owed somewhat to an older demographic that prefers expanded social interaction to the online entertainment offerings that the younger demographic prefers*.  We see an expansion of the market in the construction of architecturally astonishing buildings; though the effect of the pandemic remains to be seen.

Today our interest lies in the complex safety and sustainability characteristics of the physical infrastructure — with particular interest in the fire protection, environmental air and electrotechnologies required to make them safe and sustainable.   This facility class is far more complicated technologically and operates at significantly higher risk than, say, classrooms or office space.

The Entertainment Services and Technology Association is one of the first names in trade associations that support the ‘business of show business’ through networking, safe practices, education, and representation.  We follow the standards making activity of its technical committees and monitor public commenting opportunities.  ESTA releases markups of its consensus products for public comment at a fairly brisk pace on its standards development landing page:

ESTA Public Review Drafts

ESTA has released redlines open for comment as of this posting.

Powered Rigging Systems

Entertainment Technology – Selection and Use of Personal Fall Arrest Systems on Portable Structures Used in the Entertainment Industry

Standard for Color Communication in Entertainment Lighting

Reporting the Low-End Dimming Performance of Entertainment Luminaires Using LED Sources

Comment deadlines run from June 29th to August 3rd.

You may obtain an electronic copy at the link above, along with a comment form.  Send your comments to Karl Ruling, (212) 244-1505, standards@esta.org with an optional copy to psa@ansi.org).  We encourage our colleagues in school districts and in colleges and universities large and small; with responsibilities for the safety and sustainability of cultural resource properties, media centers, performance venues to participate in the ESTA technical standards development program.

Glorya Kaufman School of Dance / University of Southern California

We keep the ESTA suite on the standing agenda of our Lively Arts teleconference; open to everyone.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.

Since the electrotechnologies are fairly complex we also collaborate with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee which meets four times per month in European and American time zones.

 

Issue: [Various]

Category: Electrical, Arts & Entertainment Facilities

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Christine Fischer, Mike Hiler, Nehad El-Sherif

ARCHIVE: ESTA


*LEARN MORE:

State Capitals And College Towns: A Recipe For Success

Baby Boomers Are Retiring to College Towns

The original University of Michigan codes and standards advocacy enterprise interviewed an ESTA affiliate in 2015:


5.22.20

Energy Standard for Buildings

“Student Painting Competition” (2013) / Rida Maryam Qureshi United States Agency for International Development

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an ANSI-accredited continuous-maintenance standards developer (a major contributor to what we call a regulatory product development “stream”).   Continuous maintenance means that changes to its consensus products can change in as little as 30 days so it is wise to keep pace.

ASHRAE has released another batch of candidate changes to its flagship product — ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings — all of which affect the design, construction and operation of education facilities because they are heavily referenced in local, state and federal energy legislation.   Standard 90.1 has been a benchmark for commercial building energy codes in the United States and a key basis for codes and standards around the world for more than 35 years.  Free access to ASHRAE 901. is available at the link below:

READ-ONLY Version of 2016 ASHRAE 90,1

Four redlines were recently released by the ASHRAE 90.1 committee:

Addendum b: Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) should be required when cost-effective for occupied spaces considering the required outside air for ventilation required based on number of people in the space,
varying space sizes, use of energy recovery equipment, and climate zone.

Addendum d: Tightening requirements for garage ventilation

Addendum i: Proposes changes to Exhaust Air Heat Recovery systems in laboratories

Addendum k:  Regarding budget building fan power to avoid a fan power credit for cases where the proposed building includes heat recovery and the budget building does not include heat recovery.

Comments due July 19th.

You may access the redlines at the link below:

Online Standards Actions & Public Review Drafts

Education industry facility managers, energy conservation workgroups, sustainability officers, electric shop foreman, electricians and front-line maintenance professionals who change lighting fixtures, maintain environmental air systems are encouraged to participate directly in the ASHRAE consensus standard development process.

All ASHRAE consensus products are standing items on our periodic Mechanical, Water and Energy teleconferences.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [Various]

Category: Mechanical, Electrical, Energy Conservation, Facility Asset Management, US Department of Energy, #SmartCampus

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Larry Spielvogel, Richard Robben

 


LEARN MORE:

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2019: Energy Standard For Buildings

ARCHIVE / ASHRAE 90.1 ENERGY STANDARD FOR BUILDINGS

US Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program

 

S. 3589 / Use Your Endowment Act

115th Congress. Photo Credit: Pew Research Center

The Use Your Endowment Act would ban colleges or universities with endowments above $10 billion from receiving CARES Act funds.

Disaster

Today at 11 AM/ET we update our understanding of the state of best practice literature for disaster avoidance, disaster management and disaster recovery.   We side-step the over-arching topic of the COVID-19 disaster because leading practice discovery and promulgation is well covered elsewhere in real time.

Disaster is Big Business in the education industry and others.    The disaster “domain” is characterized by niche vertical incumbents that have secured a silo of stakeholders that support a business model that has generally proven successful.  You cannot avoid many disasters but you can prepare for them.

We start with the consensus products of ANSI-accredited standards developing organizations and, time-permitting will review the current state of legislative proposals which, they they do no compete with privately developed standards setting organizations, fill the gaps that standard setting organization business models cannot.

A sample of the standards setting organizations in the disaster domain are listed below:

APCO International

ARMA International

Disaster Recovery Institute International

Emergency Management Accreditation Program

The Institute of Inspection, Cleaning and Restoration Certification

National Air Duct Cleaners Association

National Disaster Preparedness Consortium

There are many others – NFPA, IEEE, ICC, etc. (public safety vertical incumbents); many others driven by the conformance and insurance interests we identify in our ABOUT.

Open to everyone.  Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Standing Agenda / Disaster

Storm Shelters

“Landscape between Storms” 1841 / Auguste Renoir

The International Code Council has released an exposure draft of its revisions to ICC/NSSA 500 Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm Shelters.  From the project prospectus:

The objective of this Standard is to provide technical design and performance criteria that will facilitate and promote the design, construction, and installation of safe, reliable, and economical storm shelters to protect the public. It is intended that this Standard be used by design professionals; storm shelter designers, manufacturers, and constructors; building officials; and emergency management personnel and government officials to ensure that storm shelters provide a consistently high level of protection to the sheltered public.

Comments are due August 10th.  The current 2014 edition of ICC 500 is also linked at the bottom of this page.

The ICC receives public response to proposed changes to its products at the link below

Standards Public Forms

Send comments to Kimberly Paarlberg (kpaarlberg@iccsafe.org) with optional copy to psa@ansi.org

The advantage of this approach is that it avoids some of the proprietary idiosyncrasies of specialty content management systems used by other standards setting organizations.  When the content is curated by ICC staff it is made available at the link below:

ICC cdpACCESS

We maintain this title on the agenda of our periodic Model Building Code and Disaster teleconferences which approach this product from the point of view of education community facility managers.   See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting, open to everyone. 

 


CLICK ON IMAGE

Readings / The Hartford Consensus

“After School” / Norman Rockwell

The last public comment intake step for NFPA’s Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response Program consensus product happened on February 19th.    Additional public engagement with this product is possible at the 2020 NFPA Annual Conference; though that has seen been cancelled.   It is likely that committees will be meeting online instead.  NFPA is pretty good at letting the world know what they are doing so we encourage to you keep pace from the project page linked above.

For the moment, it is worth noting that some of NFPA 3000 is built on the foundation of recommendations made by the American College of Surgeons — The Hartford Consensus — a consortia consensus product to inform the formulation of policies and procedures to enhance survivability from intentional mass casualty and active shooter events.

The Hartford Consensus

 

5.4.20

5.11.20

Open for Comment

This post is being re-coded to synchronize with our public commenting tracking algorithm. The technical substance is here but we are working to make it easier for our colleagues to keep pace and interact with it.

Our algorithm smashes horizontally through an expanding constellation best practice literature emanating from 1000-odd standard setting organizations every day.  These 1000-odd developers throw off the better part of 10,000 titles relevant to the safety and sustainability agenda of education communities.  These products compete with national, state and local legislative proposals — many which are drafted by contractors retained by incumbent stakeholders.

A sample of the action of ANSI-accredited standards setting organizations can be found in the weekly  ANSI Standards Action.   This publication reveals a relatively small part of the standards setting domain, however.  Open source and consortia standards setting organizations dominate leading practice discovery in faster-moving technologies and have open-ended commenting periods; not unlike ANSI’s continuous maintenance process which permits changes in as little as 30 days.

About 10 to 100 consensus products are open for comment on any given day.   On any given day, we typically identify the products we want to drill into, assign them a priority, then set up a separate markup session.


SYLLABUS: WEEK 27


 

Thursday | July 2, 2020

Today at 11 AM/ET we update our understanding of the state of best practice literature for disaster avoidance, disaster management and disaster recovery.   Disaster is Big Business in the education industry and others.

The disaster domain is characterized by niche vertical incumbents that have secured a silo of stakeholders that support a business model that has generally proven successful.  You cannot avoid many disasters but you can prepare for them.   That’s what these organizations do and there are the better part of 100 of them that directly affect education communities.

We start with the consensus products of ANSI-accredited standards developing organizations and, time-permitting. will review the current state of legislative proposals which, when they do not compete with proposals administered by privately developed standards setting organizations, fill gaps that standard setting organizations cannot; or cannot in a timely manner.

Open to everyone.  Use the login credentials at the upper right of our home page.

Open for Comment / Disaster

 


Friday | July 3, 2020

 


Saturday | July 4, 2020

 


Sunday | July 5, 2020

 


Monday | July 6, 2020

Open for Comment / Water


SYLLABUS: WEEK 28

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*Not all public commenting opportunities relevant to the safety and sustainability agenda of the education facility industry appear in “ANSI Standards Action”. Many best practice standards reside in consortia and open-source platforms; particularly ICT and IoT standards. In many economic spaces, privately-developed consensus products compete with local, state and federal legislative proposals.

University of Michigan Legacy Workspace / 1993-2016

 

Emergency Management & Business Continuity

NFPA Standard 1600 — Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity/Continuity of Operations Programs — is in its 2022 revision cycle and is close-coupled with FEMA’s National Incident Management System.   As described on its title page, this product will be reconfigured as NFPA 1660 Standard on Community Risk Assessment, Pre-Incident Planning, Mass Evacuation, Sheltering, and Re-entry Programs.  For the moment, we continue to approach the substance of the forthcoming product as MFPA 1600 until the public input report is released; when we can see how the product is organized.

The original University of Michigan standards advocacy enterprise began advocating user-interest concepts for the US education facility industry in 2007 and achieved some changes that were useful to that industry in the 2010 revision.[1]   The reconstructed enterprise (see ABOUT) now resumes its attention to NFPA 1600 as the development of asset management standards for non-normal enterprise operations gathers pace globally.  

From the NFPA 1600 prospectus:

This standard shall establish a common set of criteria for all hazards disaster/emergency management and business continuity programs, hereinafter referred to as “the program. The Emergency Management and Business Continuity community comprises many different entities, including the government at distinct levels (e.g., federal, state/provincial, territorial, tribal, indigenous, and local levels); commercial business and industry; not-for-profit and nongovernmental organizations; and individual citizens. Each of these entities has its own focus, unique mission and responsibilities, varied resources and capabilities, and operating principles and procedures.

Related document — NFPA 1620 Standard for Pre-Incident Planning — is, remarkably, on a different developmental timetable. Its Second Draft will be posted for public comment on or before August 1, 2019.  We will be following that.

It is noteworthy that the NFPA 1620 technical committee is composed almost entirely by insurance and enforcement interests–fairly common across the entire sweep of American national standards that deal with public safety–but it presents a one-sided market of ideas for which the user interest pays.  There are no user interests from the education industry on the technical committees of either standard; raising the likelihood of market-making by stakeholders who benefit from litigation.

That is today’s editorial on the US consensus product development system.

Owing to the demand for emergency management and incident management templates the NFPA is consolidating the content of this project into a new combined product; title to be announced sometime later this year.   The announcement is reproduced below:

“This Standard is no longer accepting Public Input due to the Emergency Response and Responder Safety Document Consolidation Plan (consolidation plan) as approved by the NFPA Standards Council.  As part of the consolidation plan, this Standard is slipping cycle and being combined into a new consolidated draft.  Once the new draft is available and open for Public Input, this notice will be updated with a link to the applicable document information page.”

Public comment on the input received in January 2020 is due November 19th.  When the public review draft is released no later than September 10th, you may submit public input directly to NFPA by CLICKING HERE.

We maintain NFPA 1600 on the standing agenda of our monthly campus Security and State Regulation teleconferences.   See our  CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

 

Issue: [13-58] and [18-151]

Category: Public Safety, Facility Asset Management

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Robert G. Arno, Jim Harvey, Richard Robben

ARCHIVE / Emergency Management and Business Continuity

 

Risk Assessment in Emergency Facilities

 

 

Critical Operations Power Systems: Improving Risk Assessment in Emergency Facilities with Reliability Engineering

University of Michigan | Ann Arbor, Michigan
HP Critical Facilities Services | Bethesda, Maryland
Mark Beirne

DLB Associates | Chicago, Illinois

Abstract. The key feature of this article is the application of quantitative method for evaluating risk and conveying the results into a power system design that is scaled according to hazards present in any given emergency management district. These methods employ classical lumped parameter modeling of power chain architectures and can be applied to any type of critical facility, whether it is a stand-alone structure, or a portion of stand-alone structure, such as a police station or government center. This article will provide a risk assessment roadmap for one of the most common critical facilities that should be designated as COPS per NEC 708-a 911 call center. The existing methods of reliability engineering will be used in the risk assessment.

 

* Robert Schuerger is the lead author on this paper

CLICK HERE to order complete article: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Volume 19 Issue 5 • Sept.-Oct.-2013

 

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