Tag Archives: D0


Quadrivium: Winter

American National Standards Institute: Standards Action February 16, 2024

More LIVE Campus Cameras

National Institute of Standards and Technology | News & Events











2026 National Electrical Code Workspace | Meetings February 20-21

Winter Week 8 | February 19 – February 25

Standards February: Discovery & Invention

We sweep through the world’s three major time zones; updating our understanding of the literature at the technical foundation of education community safety and sustainability in those time zones 24 times per day. We generally eschew “over-coding” web pages to sustain speed, revision cadence and richness of content as peak priority.  We do not provide a search facility because of copyrights of publishers and time sensitivity of almost everything we do.

Cognitive Science: An Introduction to the Study of Mind

Our daily colloquia are typically doing sessions; with non-USA titles receiving priority until 16:00 UTC and all other titles thereafter.  We assume policy objectives are established (Safer-Simpler-Lower-Cost, Longer-Lasting).   Because we necessarily get into the weeds, and because much of the content is time-sensitive and copyright protected, we usually schedule a separate time slot to hammer on technical specifics so that our response to consultations are meaningful and contribute to the goals of the standards developing organization and to the goals of stewards of education community real assets.

1. Leviathan.  We track noteworthy legislative proposals in the United States 118th Congress.  Not many deal specifically with education community real assets since the relevant legislation is already under administrative control of various Executive Branch Departments such as the Department of Education.

We do not advocate in legislative activity at any level.   We respond to public consultations but there it ends.

We track federal legislative action because it provides a stroboscopic view of the moment — the “national conversation”– in communities that are simultaneously a business and a culture.  Even though more than 90 percent of such proposals are at the mercy of the party leadership the process does enlighten the strengths and weakness of a governance system run entirely through the counties on the periphery of Washington D.C.  It is impossible to solve technical problems in facilities without sensitivity to the zietgeist that has accelerated in education communities everywhere.

Department of Energy

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Federal Aviation Administration

Aviation Maintenance Technician Schools | Consultation closes April 14, 2023

Science & Technology Policy Office

Request for Information; NSPM 33 Research Security Programs Standard Requirement | Consultation closes June 5, 2023


North Dakota

We typically post one federal and one state level consultation or action every day for at least one of the 50-states — in the lower right corner of our home page when most education communities in the United States have begun a new work day.  Examples, irregularly linked:

U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security: Public consultation on US standards system rule (November 8)

2National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Post-Quantum Cryptography Practice Guide (June 8)

Public Consultation on Semiconductor Manufacturing (November 28)

NIST Awards Funding to 5 Universities to Advance Standards Education

NIST Center for Neutron Research: 2022 Outstanding Student Poster Presentation

Commerce Levels Playing Field to Support U.S. Stakeholder Participation in International Standards Setting Activities

NIST Report Outlines Strategic Opportunities for U.S. Semiconductor Manufacturing

Occupational exposure and indoor environmental quality evaluation from operating multiple desktop 3D printers in an office environment within a library.

3ANSI ISO Business  (Many of these projects are normally covered during our Hello World! colloquia

ANSI April 2023 Public Policy Update

ANSI January Report 2023 on ISO, IEC & ITU Work Items

ISO Standardization Foresight Framework | Trend Report 2022

New ISO Subcommittee ISO/TC 197/SC 1 – Hydrogen at Scale and Horizontal Energy Systems

New ISO Subcommittee ISO/TC 67/SC 10 – Enhanced oil recovery

Update: Certification+Degree (C+D) pathways in information technology (IT) and health sciences.

2023 Student Paper Competition Theme: Standards Supporting United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.  Submissions due 2 June 2023

Standards Coordination Office | USA WTO TBT Enquiry Point 


Consultations (Some posted with IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee) | Direct access to primary workspace

4. Fast Forward  

Looking Ahead: 2024

5. Rewind


Lights Out

6. Corrigenda

International Standardization Organization Week Date



Glossary: Education

The College Idea: Andrew Delbanco


By design, we do not provide a SEARCH function. We are a niche practice in a subtle. time-sensitive domain with over 30 years of case history in which we have been first movers. We provide links to the most accessed topics in recent days. All queries presented during our “Open Office Hours” every work day, or via email, are gratefully received and prompt a near-immediate response.

Gallery: School Uniforms

Ice Fishing

How to Make Baby Food

Request for Information: Artificial Intelligence

Kitchen Planning: Work Centers

The De-Population Bomb

Evensong “How Do You Keep the Music Playing?”

Textile Arts & Costume Design

What California College Students are Wearing

Electrical Resource Adequacy

American Vitruvius

What is Happening to the Family, and Why?

Kiewit Hall

Laboratory Fume Hood Safety

Evensong “Melody in F”

Cathedral of Learning Fire

Harvard University | Middlesex County Massachusetts

University of Iowa | Johnson County

Gallery: Great Lakes

Friday End of Workweek Provocation: Chemistry of Beer

Национа́льный иссле́довательский То́мский госуда́рственный университе́т

Robie House

Making Greenwich the centre of the world

Roger Scruton Memorial Lectures

Electrical heat tracing: international harmonization-now and in the future

Winter Vegetable Soup

Electrical heat tracing: international harmonization-now and in the future

Brankscom Hall Toronto

Fire Alarm & Signaling Code

Ice Swimming

Uniform Plumbing Code

Banished Words 2024


“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession

of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”

Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen



2023 National Electrical Safety Code



“Theory is when you know everything but nothing works.

Practice is when everything works but no one knows why.

In our lab, theory and practice are combined: nothing works,

and no one knows why.”

—  Charles Proteus Steinmetz

Nikola Tesla, with his equipment

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission: Electrical Resource Adequacy

Electrical Power System Research

The standard of care for electrical safety at high and low voltage is set by both the NEC and the NESC. There are gaps, however (or, at best “gray areas”) — the result of two technical cultures: utility power culture and building fire safety culture. There is also tradition. Local system conditions and local adaptation of regulations vary. Where there is a gap; the more rigorous requirement should govern safety of the public and workers.

The 2023 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)– an IEEE title often mistaken for NFPA’s National Electrical Code (NEC) — was released for public use about six months ago; its normal 5-year revision cycle interrupted by the circumstances of the pandemic.   Compared with the copy cost of the NEC, the NESC is pricey, though appropriate for its target market — the electric utility industry.  Because the 2023 revision has not been effectively “field tested” almost all of the available support literature is, effectively, “sell sheets” for pay-for seminars and written by authors presenting themselves as experts for the battalions of litigators supporting the US utility industry.  Without the ability to sell the NESC to prospective “insiders” the NESC would not likely be commercial prospect for IEEE.   As the lawsuits and violations and conformance interests make their mark in the fullness of time; we shall see the 2023 NESC “at work”.

The 2023 revision incorporates the new battery technologies and addresses energy storage; backup power, 5G communication technology infrastructure among other adaptations.   A new Section 19 of the code covers photovoltaic generating stations, with sections addressing general codes, location, grounding configurations, vegetation management, DC overcurrent protection, and DC conductors.

IEEE Standards Association: Additional Information, Articles, Tools, and Resources Related to the NESC

Office of the President: Economic Benefits of Increasing Electric Grid Resilience to Weather Outages


Research Tracks:

  1. Smart Grid Technologies:
    • Investigating advanced technologies to enhance the efficiency, reliability, and sustainability of power grids.
  2. Energy Storage Systems:
    • Researching and developing new energy storage technologies to improve grid stability and accommodate intermittent renewable energy sources.
  3. Distributed Generation Integration:
    • Studying methods to seamlessly integrate distributed energy resources such as solar panels and wind turbines into the existing power grid.
  4. Grid Resilience and Security:
    • Exploring technologies and strategies to enhance the resilience of power grids against cyber-attacks, natural disasters, and other threats.
  5. Demand Response Systems:
  6. Advanced Sensors and Monitoring:
    • Developing new sensor technologies and monitoring systems to enhance grid visibility, detect faults, and enable predictive maintenance.
  7. Power Quality and Reliability:
    • Studying methods to improve power quality, reduce voltage fluctuations, and enhance overall grid reliability.
  8. Integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs):
    • Researching the impact of widespread electric vehicle adoption on the grid and developing smart charging infrastructure.
  9. Grid Automation and Control:
    • Exploring advanced automation and control strategies to optimize grid operations, manage congestion, and improve overall system efficiency.
  10. Campus Distribution Grid Selling and Buying 

Relevant Technical Literature


Guide for Overhead Alternating Current (AC) Transmission Line Design | Comments Due February 2

Guide for Collecting and Managing Transmission Line Inspection and Maintenance Data | Comments Due February 5

Presentation | FERC-NERC-Regional Entity Joint Inquiry Into Winter Storm Elliott

IEEE Guide for Joint Use of Utility Poles with Wireline and/or Wireless Facilities

NESC Rule 250B and Reliability Based Design

NESC Requirements (Strength and Loading)

Engineering Analysis of Possible Effects of 2017 NESC Change Proposal to Remove 60′ Exemption

National Electrical Safety Code Workspace

Joint Use of Electric Power Transmission & Distribution Facilities and Equipment

A Framework to Quantify the Value of Operational Resilience for Electric Power Distribution Systems

Guide for Live-Working Robots for Electric Distribution Systems: Comments by September 25th

August 14, 2003 Power Outage at the University of Michigan

Guide for the Application of Quick Response Systems of Customer-Side Loads in Modern Power Grids – Comments Due August 5

Technologies for Interoperability in Microgrids for Energy Access

National Electrical Safety Code: Revision Cycles 1993 through 2023


February 24, 2023

The new code goes into effect 1 February 2023, but is now available for access on IEEE Xplore! Produced exclusively by IEEE, the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) specifies best practices for the safety of electric supply and communication utility systems at both public and private utilities.  The bibliography is expanding rapidly:

NESC 2023: Introduction to the National Electrical Safety Code

NESC 2023: Rule Changes

NESC 2023Safety Rules for Installation and Maintenance of Overhead Electric Supply

NESC 2023Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Underground Electric Supply and Communication Lines

NESC 2023: Rules for Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply Stations

IEEE Digital Library

Grid Edge Visibility: Gaps and a road map

October 31, 2022

The IEEE NESC technical committee has released a “fast track” review of proposed changes to fault-managed power system best practice:

CP5605 Provides a definition of new Fault Managed Power System (FMPS) circuits used for the powering of
communications equipment clearly defines what constitutes a FMPS circuit for the purposes of application of the NESC
Rules of 224 and 344

CP5606 Provides new definitions of Communication Lines to help ensure that Fault Managed Power Systems (FMPS)
circuits used for the exclusive powering of communications equipment are clearly identified as communications lines
and makes an explicit connection to Rule 224B where the applicable rules for such powering circuits are found.

CP5607 The addition of this exception permits cables containing Fault Managed Power System (FMPS) circuits used for
the exclusive powering of communications equipment to be installed without a shield.

CP5608 The addition of this exception permits cables containing Fault Managed Power System (FMPS) circuits used for
the exclusive powering of communications equipment to be installed without a shield.

We refer them to the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee for further action, if any.


August 5, 2022

We collaborate closely with the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities Committee (IEEE E&H) to negotiate the standard of care for power security on the #SmartCampus  since many campus power systems are larger than publicly regulated utilities.  Even when they are smaller, the guidance in building the premise wiring system — whether the premise is within a building, outside the building (in which the entire geography of the campus footprint is the premise), is inspired by IEEE Standards Association administrated technical committees.

Northeast Community College | Norfolk, Nebraska

Today we begin a list of noteworthy changes to be understood in the next few Power colloquia.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.

  1. New rules 190 through 195 cover photovoltaic generating stations.  Rule 116c adds an exception for short lengths of insulated power cables and short-circuit protection if the situation involves fewer than 1,000 volts.
  2. Rule 320B has been revised to clarify separations that apply to communications and supply in different conduit systems.
  3. Table 410-4 is based on the latest arc flash testing on live-front transformers.
  4. Rule 092A adds an exception allowing protection, control, and safety battery systems to not be grounded.
  5. Rules 234 B1, C1, D1 were revised to better present vertical and horizontal wind clearances, and to coordinate requirements with the new Table 234-7.
  6. Rule 120A was revised to provide correction factors for clearances on higher elevations.
  7. Table 253-1 has been revised to reduce the load factor for fiber-reinforced polymer components under wire tension—including dead ends—for Grade C construction.
  8. Rule 410A now requires a specific radio-frequency safety program for employees who might be exposed.
  9. In the Clearances section, as well as in the specification of the Grade of Construction in Table 242-1, the Code further clarifies the use of non-hazardous fiber optic cables as telecom providers continue to expand their networks.
  10. Revisions in the Strength & Loading sections include modified Rule 250C, which addresses extreme wind loading for overhead lines. Two wind maps are now provided instead of the previous single one. A map for Grade B, the highest grade of construction, with a Mean Recurrence Interval (MRI) of 100 years (corresponding to a one percent annual probability of occurrence) is provided in place of the previous 50–90-year MRI map. For Grade C construction, a separate 50-year MRI (two percent annual probability of occurrence) map is now provided. In the previous Code, a factor was applied to the 50–90-year MRI map for application to Grade C.
  11. Changes were also made to the method of determining the corresponding wind loads, consistent with the latest engineering practices as an example of a Code revision focused on public safety, the ground end of all anchor guys adjacent to regularly traveled pedestrian thoroughfares, such as sidewalks, and similar places where people can be found must include a substantial and conspicuous marker to help prevent accidents. The previous Code did not require the marking of every such anchor guy.
  12. Significant revisions were made in Section 14 covering batteries. Previous editions of the code were based on lead-acid technology and batteries only used for backup power. The 2023 Code incorporates the new battery technologies and addresses energy storage and backup power.
  13. A new Section 19 of the code covers photovoltaic generating stations, with sections addressing general codes, location, grounding configurations, vegetation management, DC overcurrent protection, and DC conductors. These new rules accommodate large-scale solar power projects.
  14. In the Clearances section, all rules for wireless antenna structures have been consolidated in the equipment section (Rule 238 and 239), which makes the Code more user-friendly.
  15. A new subcommittee was created focusing on generating stations, with the original subcommittee continuing to address substations.
  16. A working group is investigating Fault Managed Power Systems (FMPS) cables as the technology may be used for 5G networks. The team is looking at possible impacts, including clearances and work rules.


February 18, 2021


Several proposals recommending improvements to the 2017 National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) were submitted to the IEEE subcommittees drafting the 2022 revision of the NESC.   Some of the proposals deal with coordination with the National Electrical Code — which is now in its 2023 revision cycle.  Keep in mind that that NESC is revised every 5 years at the moment; the NEC is revised every 3 years.

The original University of Michigan standards advocacy enterprise has been active in writing the NESC since the 2012 edition and set up a workspace for use by electrical professionals in the education industry.   We will be using this workspace as the 2022 NESC continues along its developmental path:

IEEE 2022 NESC Workspace

The revision schedule — also revised in response to the circumstances of the pandemic — is linked below::

NESC 2023 Edition Revision Schedule*


The NESC is a standing item on the 4-times monthly teleconferences of the IEEE Education & Healthcare Facilities committee.  The next online meeting is shown on the top menu of the IEEE E&H website:

IEEE E&H Committee

We have a copy of the first draft of the 2023 NESC and welcome anyone to join us for an online examination during any of Power & ICT teleconferences.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting.

Business unit leaders, facility managers and electrical engineers working in the education facilities industry may be interested in the campus power system reliability database.   Forced outages on large research campuses, for example, can have enterprise interruption cost of $100,000 to $1,000,000 per minute.    The campus power system forced outage database discriminates between forced outages attributed to public utility interruptions and forced outages attributed to the university-owned power system.   The E&H committee will convey some of the discipline applied by the IEEE 1366 technical committee into its study of campus power systems and, ultimately, setting a benchmark for the standard of care for large university power systems.



* The IEEE changed the nominal date of the next edition; likely owed to pandemic-related slowdown typical for most standards developing organizations.

Issue: [16-67]

Contact: Mike Anthony, Robert G. Arno, Lorne Clark, Nehad El-Sharif, Jim Harvey, Kane Howard, Joe Weber, Guiseppe Parise, Jim Murphy

Category: Electrical, Energy Conservation & Management, Occupational Safety

ARCHIVE: University of Michigan Advocacy in the NESC 2007 – 2017


P1366 – Guide for Electric Power Distribution Reliability Indices 

University Design Guidelines that reference the National Electrical Safety Code


Beauty in a World of Ugliness

Energy Standard for *Sites* and Buildings

ANSI Standards Action: February 2, 2024

“Student Painting Competition” (2013) Rida Maryam Qureshi United States Agency for International Development

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is an ANSI-accredited continuous-maintenance standards developer (a major contributor to what we call a regulatory product development “stream”).   Continuous maintenance means that changes to its consensus products can change in as little as 30 days so it is wise to keep pace.

Among the leading titles in its catalog is ASHRAE 90.1 Energy Standard for Sites and Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.  Standard 90.1 has been a benchmark for commercial building energy codes in the United States and a key basis for codes and standards around the world for more than 35 years.  Free access to ASHRAE 90.1 version is available at the link below:

READ ONLY Version of 2022 ASHRAE 90.1

Redlines are released at a fairly brisk pace — with 30 to 45 day consultation periods.  A related title — ASHRAE 189.1 Standard for the Design of High Performance Green Buildings — first published in 2009 and far more prescriptive in its scope heavily  references parent title 90.1 so we usually them as a pair because 189.1 makes a market for green building conformance enterprises. Note the “extreme prescriptiveness” (our term of art) in 189.1 which has the practical effect of legislating engineering judgement, in our view.

25 January 2023: Newly Released ASHRAE 90.1-2022 Includes Expanded Scope For Building Sites

ASHRAE committees post their redlines at the link below:

Online Standards Actions & Public Review Drafts

No redlines relevant to our work are open for comment at this time.  

Education industry facility managers, energy conservation workgroups, sustainability officers, electric shop foreman, electricians and front-line maintenance professionals who change lighting fixtures, maintain environmental air systems are encouraged to participate directly in the ASHRAE consensus standard development process.

We also maintain ASHRAE best practice titles as standing items on our Mechanical, Water, Energy and Illumination colloquia.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.

Issue: [Various]

Category: Mechanical, Electrical, Energy Conservation, Facility Asset Management, US Department of Energy, #SmartCampus

Colleagues: Mike Anthony, Larry Spielvogel, Richard Robben

Under Construction:  ASHRAE WORKSPACE


The fundamental concept in social science is Power, in the same sense in which Energy is the fundamental concept in physics. - Bertrand Russell

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2019: Energy Standard For Buildings


US Department of Energy Building Energy Codes Program

ASHRAE Guideline 0 The Commissioning Process

Why Software is Eating the World

A Survey on Explainable Artificial Intelligence

Decoding the US Senate Hearing on Oversight of AI: NLP Analysis in Python


Peeking Inside the Black-Box_ A Survey on Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI)

IEEE Explore

Amina Adadi & Mohammed Berrada

Ben Abdellah University Morocco


ABSTRACT: At the dawn of the fourth industrial revolution, we are witnessing a fast and widespread adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) in our daily life, which contributes to accelerating the shift towards a more algorithmic society. However, even with such unprecedented advancements, a key impediment to the use of AI-based systems is that they often lack transparency. Indeed, the black-box nature of these systems allows powerful predictions, but it cannot be directly explained. This issue has triggered a new debate on explainable AI (XAI). A research field holds substantial promise for improving trust and transparency of AI-based systems. It is recognized as the sine qua non for AI to continue making steady progress without disruption. This survey provides an entry point for interested researchers and practitioners to learn key aspects of the young and rapidly growing body of research related to XAI. Through the lens of the literature, we review the existing approaches regarding the topic, discuss trends surrounding its sphere, and present major research trajectories.

Sample of video coverage sorted by view count:


Freely Available ICT Standards

“Le Lac Léman ou Près d’Evian au lac de Genève” 1883 François BocionISO and IEC Joint Technical Committee 1  is the work center for international information and communications technology (ICT) standards that are relevant to education communities.  In accordance with ISO/IEC JTC 1 and the ISO and IEC Councils, some International Standards and other deliverables are made freely available for standardization purposes.

Freely Available International Standards

We at least follow action, and sometimes contribute data and user-interest perspective, to the development of standards produced by several ANSI-accredited ICT standard developing organizations — ATIS, BICSI, IEEE, INCITS, TIA among them.  US-based organizations may communicate directly with Lisa Rajchel, ANSI’s ISO/IEC JTC 1 Senior Director for this project: lrajchel@ansi.org.  Our colleagues at other educational organizations should contact their national standards body.

We scan the status of Infotech and Cloud standards periodically and collaborate with a number of IEEE Societies.  See our CALENDAR for the next online meeting; open to everyone.


The ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee for Information Technology (JTC 1)

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 Information technology for learning, education and training

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 32 Data management and interchange

“The Big Chill” Morning Coffee

“Amazing tradition.
They throw a great party for you on the one day they know you can’t come.”

Sam (Tom Berenger)

Best Coffee Spots Near Campus

George H.W. Bush 1991 University of Michigan Commencement Speech on “Political Correctness”

“Ironically, on the 200th anniversary of our Bill of Rights, we find free speech under assault throughout the United States, including on some college campuses. The notion of political correctness has ignited controversy across the land. And although the movement arises from the laudable desire to sweep away the debris of racism and sexism and hatred, it replaces old prejudice with new ones. It declares certain topics off-limits, certain expression off-limits, even certain gestures off-limits.”

Purpose-Built Student Accommodation

Date & Time: Representations For Information Interchange

“A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery” | Joseph Wright (1766)

Most nations follow the day/month/year format (07/01/19 for January 7, 2019, for example), but the United States adheres to its own format of month/day/year (1/7/19 or 1/7/2019).   The potential for misinterpreting dates across national boundaries is the logic for ISO 8601:2019 – Data Elements And Interchange Formats – Information Interchange – Representation Of Dates And Times, the ISO format for dates represents year, month, and day from the largest unit to the smallest, most specific unit of time.  The ISO date format is the date format used in SQL and is the default date setting on many computers.

ISO 8601-1:2019 Date And Time – Representations For Information Interchange – Part 1: Basic Rules



Time and Date

How the ISO Date Format Tells Today

ISO Date Format

Date and time formats used in HTML

Making Greenwich the centre of the world

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